January 1997 Newsletter

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NEWSLETTER

NATIONAL WEATHER ASSOCIATION

No. 97-1                                     January 1997

PRESIDENTS MESSAGE

Operational meteorologists providing value-added products and services to a diverse customer base.

At the start of a new year, every organization normally goes through a self-assessment process. Who are we? What are we doing? How well are we doing? Are our constituents (or customers) satisfied? What changes do we need to make? The National Weather Association is no different. A recent article in Leadership 1996 by D. Barry Connelly helped me focus on the role of associations in general. He stated that associations exist to debate issues and determine a common course of action that benefits all. He gave 12 reasons why America needs to sustain its not-for-profit associations: information, education, standards, ethics, research, promotion, stakeholder participation, community service, partnerships, global competition, technology and values.

As your new President, I developed the above theme for 1997 to provide focus for us as the operational meteorological community faces significant challenges this year. The theme states who most of us are or who we support and what we provide or promote. It also highlights the near universal extent of our customers. The theme flows from our mission to support and promote excg the glue that keeps us together NWA would be lost without him! And, thanks to the NWA membership for allowing me the privilege of serving as your President. I value your service to our profession and I value your feedback on where we are and where we should go as an association. Contact me with your thoughts at work (407-494-7426), home (407-779-8659), or by e-mail (thomas-adang@pafb.af.mil). - Thomas Adang DATES TO REMEMBER

7-9 March - 22nd Annual Northeastern Storm Conference in Sarasota Springs NY sponsored by the Lyndon State College AMS/NWA Local Chapter. Contact Gerry Bielinski at (802) 626-6661; bielinskig@queen.lsc.vsc.edu

14-16 March - Weekend Severe Storms - Doppler Radar Conference in Des Moines IA sponsored by the Central Iowa NWA Chapter. See December Newsletter or contact John McLaughlin at (515) 247-8888; johnmc49@ecity.net

20-26 April - Sky Awareness Week

15 June - See New Award on page 2.

NEW AWARD! THE NWA METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITE APPLICATIONS AWARD

The Meteorological Satellite Applications Award has been established by the National Weather Association to stimulate interest and foster the study and use of satellite remote sensing data in weather forecasting. Undergraduate students are invited to write an original paper on meteorological satellite applications.

Themes of the papers may include original research, case studies, or a survey of applications. The recipient of the award will receive a stipend of $500 and be invited to present their paper at the NWA Annual Meeting. This award is sponsored by Frances Holt, Chair of the NWA Remote Sensing Committee.

The student must be enrolled as an undergraduate at the time the paper is written and be in good academic standing at their college or university. The student also must be a U.S. citizen or hold permanent resident status.

DEADLINE: 15 JUNE 1997

Submission of Papers: Student papers should not exceed ten (10) pages including photographs and appendices. Authors should send: an original and three copies of their paper, a letter of application from the author with the paper title, university affiliation and contact information including mailing address, phone, FAX, and e-mail if available, and a letter from the Department Head or other faculty member that confirms that the author was an undergraduate student when the paper was written and that the student is in good academic standing at the college or university. Additionally this letter should highlight the original research or contributions the student has made to this paper.

Submissions should be sent to: National Weather Association Attn: Meteorological Satellite Applications Award 6704 Wolke Court Montgomery, AL 36116-2134.

Announcement of the recipient of the award will be made by 1 November 1997.
- Frances Holt

NWA Annual Award nominations and Education Grant proposals will be due in July 1997. It is not too early to begin looking for worthy award candidates and informing K-12 teachers of the NWA grant opportunities. SELS leaves Kansas City after 42 years

The names SELS and Kansas City were synonymous for over 42 years. That association ended at 11:00 p.m. on 22 January 1997 when Lead Forecaster, Mike Vescio, and MESO Meteorologist, Mike Rehbein, ended their 3:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. shift and closed out the Kansas City operation of the National Weather Service/NCEP Storm Prediction Center or SPC - the current title for the SELS unit.

SELS (SEvere Local Storms unit) began in Washington DC in 1952 manned by U.S. Weather Bureau employees who had volunteered to receive training in severe weather forecast techniques and staff the new unit. SELS moved to Kansas City in August 1954 and remained a Kansas City fixture until January 22nd. The transition to the SPC's new home in Norman OK has been underway for several months as the Norman component grew and assumed more and more of the operational duties.

Twenty-nine Lead forecasters have served in SELS during the years since its inception. Joe Galway, a SELS original, joined the unit as one of those 1952 volunteers and served until his retirement in 1984. Joe still lives in the Kansas City area. For an interesting account of Joe's career and early SELS history see the article in the June 1996 edition of Weather and Forecasting. For a historical outline of the SELS, NSSFC and SPC time line by Fred Ostby and Roger Edwards, see the SPC home page at: http://www.spc.noaa.gov/

Hats off to those 29 SELS Lead forecasters and to the hundreds of SELS assistants, analysts, computer programmers and operators, research and satellite meteorologists and supervisory and administrative personnel who served in Kansas City. Thousands of Tornado and Severe Thunderstorm Watches have been issued from the Kansas City office and countless lives have been saved thanks to their professionalism, dedication and plain hard work.

Incidentally, the 17th floor office is not closing. The NWS/NCEP Aviation Weather Center (AWC), a co-occupant of the west end of the seventeenth floor at 601 E. Twelfth Street now becomes the lone occupant. The AWC has a move of its own in the offing a new building is to be constructed near Kansas City International Airport with occupancy planned for mid 1998.

Again, congratulations to all former SELS unit personnel for jobs well done and best wishes to SPC personnel now in Norman, Oklahoma.
- Dick Williams, AWC (SELS Assistant in the 70s and more than a little sorry to see them leave KC) Richard.J.Williams@noaa.gov or rjw@sky.net

1997 NWA OFFICERS & COUNCILORS

The ballots have been counted and the new slate of NWA Council members took effect in early January. Congratulations to those elected and thanks to all nominees for showing extraordinary support of the NWA by volunteering for office.

PRESIDENT:		Thomas C. Adang
			30 Azalea Avenue
			Satellite Beach, FL 32937
			(407) 494-7426
			USAF/45th Weather Squadron
 
PRESIDENT-ELECT:	Joseph T. Schaefer
			1313 Halley Circle
			Norman, OK 73069
			(405) 579-0701
			NWS Storm Prediction Center
 
VICE-PRESIDENT:		James T. Moore
			825 Orpington Drive
			Des Peres, MO 63131
			(314) 977-3126
			Saint Louis University
 
SECRETARY:		Steven M. Zubrick
			44087 Weather Service Road
			Sterling, VA 20166
			(703) 260-0107
			NWS Forecast Office
 
TREASURER:		Eli Jacks
			NWS W/OM21 Room 13125
			1325 East-West Highway
			Silver Spring, MD 20910
			(301) 713-1970
 
COUNCILORS
 
Councilors for 1996 and 1997:
L. Glen Cobb			John L. Hayes
Earth Science Dept.		1 Custer Drive
Univ of Northern Colorado	Offutt AFB, NE 68113
Greeley, CO 80639		(402) 294-5749
(303) 351-2370			USAF/AFGWC
 
G. Alan Johnson			Jay Prater
403 Tanglewood Drive		WAFF-TV
Slidell, LA 70458		11241 Springwood Dr SE
(504) 649-0429			Huntsville, AL 35803
NWS Forecast Office		(205) 533-6397
 
Sandra D. Thomson
WANE-TV
2915 W State Blvd
Fort Wayne, IN 46808
(219) 424-1515
 
Councilors for 1997 and 1998:
 
Ruth Aiken			Frank C. Brody	
1020 Home Farm Road		907 Plum Falls Court	
Wendell, NC 27591		Houston, TX 77062
(919) 515-8210 			(713) 483-5639	
NWS Forecast Office		NWS/SMG Johnson 
Raleigh, NC			Space Center, Houston
 
Carolyn M. Kloth 		David I. Knapp
NWS Aviation Weather Center	740 Windmill Drive	
601 E 12th Street  Room 1728 	Las Cruces, NM 88001	
Kansas City, MO 64106		(505) 678-8148
(816) 426-3427x250		US Army Research Lab
 
Leslie R. Lemon	
16416 Cogan Drive		
Independence, MO 64055	
(816) 373-9990
Lockheed Martin Tactical Defense Systems	
 
The immediate past President remains on the Council for one
year:
Norman W. (Wes) Junker
NWS/NCEP HPC
5200 Auth Road, Room 402
Camp Springs, MD 20746
(301) 763-8201
 
NWA Newsletter  (ISSN 0271-1044)
Co-Editors:  Larry Burch and Eli Jacks
Publisher:  Kevin Lavin, Executive Director
Published  monthly  by  the  National Weather Association,
6704  Wolke Court,  Montgomery,  Alabama  36116-2134.
Tel/FAX:  (334) 213-0388
E-mail:  NatWeaAsoc@aol.com
 
Home page: http://www.nwas.org
Aviation Committee page: http://www.nwas.org/committees/avn-wea.html
 

Submit newsletter items directly to: Editor NWA Newsletter, Eli Jacks, NOAA/NWS W/OM21, 1325 East West Hwy Room 13125, Silver Spring MD 20910; e-mail: Elliott.Jacks@noaa.gov or to: Larry Burch, NOAA/NWSFO, 2242 W. North Temple, Salt Lake City UT 84116; e-mail: Larry.Burch@noaa.gov. Material received by the 5th will be considered for that months issue.

Members receive the monthly NWA Newsletter and quarterly National Weather Digest as part of their regular, student or corporate membership privileges. Contact the NWA for membership information. Newsletter subscriptions are available at $18.00 per year plus extra shipping costs outside USA. Single copies are $1.50.

FEATURED NWA COUNCIL MEMBER

Dr. Jim Moore earned his B.S. in meteorology from New York University in 1974, his M.S. in Atmospheric Science from Cornell University in 1976, and his Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences from Cornell University in 1979. He has taught meteorology at the State University College at Oneonta from 1978-1980 and at Saint Louis University since 1980. His interests lie in the short-term prediction of severe local storms, including heavy convective rainfall, and mesoscale precipitation associated with extratropical cyclones in winter. Jim has written a booklet on the utility of isentropic analysis techniques that is used at many universities, US Air Force Weather offices, and most National Weather Service offices. He especially enjoys interacting with operational forecasters to learn what specific problems they have in forecasting mesoscale weather. He has taught an isentropic analysis course at the NWS Training Center in Kansas City, MO since 1989 as part of the Forecaster Development Course. He also has taught numerous times at COMET during the SOO COMAP course, Hydrometeorology course, Managers course, WMO-International course and the Mesoscale course. Jim has given workshops at NWS Forecast Offices in the Eastern Region and Central Region on such topics as jet streak circulations, isentropic analysis techniques, Quasi-Geostrophic Theory and Q vectors, Forecasting Heavy Rainfall associated with MCSs, and Frontogenesis. He is working with the Saint Louis and Louisville NWS Forecast Offices on a COMET cooperative grant to better forecast precipitation (the QPF problem) and study bow echoes associated with straight line winds. Jim likes to be the liaison between the research and operational meteorological communities; both groups have a lot to learn from each other. Jim hopes that in his new capacity as vice-president of the NWA, he can further work for and with operational forecasters to better understand mesoscale systems and their organization, building better conceptual models and gaining more insight into atmospheric motion. Jim appreciates your confidence in voting him into this office. It is his privilege and honor to serve the operational community in this meaningful way.

MEMBER NEWS

Alan Sealls has joined NBC 5 Chicago as a Broadcast Meteorologist. He will also contribute weather information to the NBC 5 Chicago web page. He served previously at WGN-TV and continues as an instructor in meteorology at Columbia College. He has earned the NWA and AMS Seals of Approval and holds a B.S. and M.S. in Meteorology. He serves on the NWA Seal Committee.

Kevin Starr recently accepted a new position within TRW supporting new business and proposal operations at their Fairfax, Virginia Headquarters. He previously managed TRWs Communications, Navigation, Surveillance, and weather support to the FAAs systems engineering division. Kevin has worked for TRW for 13 years and earlier was with The Weather Channel.

In Memoriam

Walter Keith Henry, 9 Jan 1919 13 Jan 1997, of College Station, Texas, died after a long illness. He was a charter NWA member and retired from Texas A&M University as professor emeritus in the meteorology department after 30 years of teaching. Prior to that, he had served in the US Air Force/Army Air Forces and retired as a Lieutenant Colonel. Memorials may be made to A&M United Methodist Church or the American Cancer Society. He is survived by his wife, Frances Henry, of College Station, three sons and two daughters-in-law, and three grandchildren.

LOCAL CHAPTER NEWS The January meeting of the Central Iowa NWA Chapter was held at the KCCI Television Studio in Des Moines. Central Iowa media and emergency management staffers were invited for an informative discussion of the Emergency Alert System (EAS). Erik Pytlak of the Des Moines National Weather Service Office, and local NWA chapter treasurer, conducted a 45 minute briefing on the status of EAS in Iowa, followed by a question and answer session. It was also noted that Erik Pytlak has been selected to the Local Chapter committee of the NWA. Erik is a meteorologist and the external team chairperson for the local National Weather Service office and is active in promoting meteorology in Iowa.

John McLaughlin briefed members on the status of the March Severe Weather Conference. Despite numerous late cancellations from NWS meteorologists due to budget cuts, more than 85 paid registrations have been received and additional inquiries are coming in daily. Several vendors have committed to displaying at the conference, including Baron Services, WeatherGraphix Technologies, Storm Track Magazine, Weather Central Inc., and Freese Notis Inc. Additional support for the conference has been received from Chaston Scientific Inc., Kavouras Inc., Environmental Research Services, The Tornado Project and Advanced Design Corp.

Last minute inquiries about the conference should be directed to John McLaughlin at johnmc49@ecity.net or phone 515-247-8888. Updates will be posted to: http://www.ecity.net/~iowanwa/
- John McLaughlin, Chapter President

The Arkansas NWA Chapter met on 25 January 1997 at the Red Lobster restaurant in North Little Rock. The luncheon was attended by 18 individuals, with some nonmembers in attendance for the first time. The luncheon was advertised by at least one local television weathercaster. A booklet about the chapter, compiled by George Wilken, was given to attendees and it was announced that membership cards will be given out with the payment of dues for 1997. An executive session was held by the Chapter officers. Discussion centered around developing committees for publicity, outreach and programs. The next meeting will likely be held at the National Weather Service office in Little Rock to discuss the formation of the committees and other business and George Wilken will discuss, Forecasting Winter Weather in Arkansas. - Newton Skiles, Corresponding Secretary

Welcome to the Central Oklahoma NWA Chapter as the newest NWA local chapter. About 90 people attended the 23 January 1997 meeting at the University of Oklahoma in Norman. The Chapter, which was recently designated the Omicron Local Chapter of the NWA, currently has 125 members. President Kit Wagner announced plans to provide judges at the Oklahoma City Regional and the Oklahoma State Science and Engineering Fairs. The Chapter members voted to present plaques for the top two weather- and/or hydrology-related projects at both fairs. Dr. Fred Carr, Director of the Universitys School of Meteorology, discussed the Schools program and briefly outlined the research interests of the 17 regular and two emeritus members of the faculty.

For the main program, Dr. Charles A. Doswell III of the National Severe Storms Laboratory spoke on the facts and fiction of storm chasing. He entertained the attendees for an hour and a half with slides and videos of some of the more memorable storms that he has encountered during his 25 years of chasing. He concluded by pointing out some of the unrealistic aspects of the movie, Twister.
- Rodger A. Brown, Secretary

FIXING THE YEAR 2000 PROBLEM

Dr. Fred Decker, a member specializing in forensic meteorology, sent in an article from the December 1996, The Computer Law Observer, Issue No. 21. Negotiating the End of the Millennium, was the title and it was written by William S. Galkin, Esq. The article focuses on the legal issues involved in successfully negotiating a solution to what is often referred to as the Year 2000 Problem.

Mr. Galkin indicates that the problem is that, almost all applications record information regarding the year with two digits (i.e., 96 for 1996). Therefore, when 00 for 2000 comes along, erroneous results could occur in subtractions and other calculations. He states the Magnitude All hardware and software systems are potentially affected... Major corporations are expected to have to pay at least $40 million to rectify the problem. The worldwide cost could reach $400 billion. Federal Express was reported as having paid 5 cents per line of code to correct the problem, which resulted in a $500 million total cost. Chubb Insurance has paid $180 million and the State of Nebraska has paid $32 million.

Mr. Galkin recommends that every company (and individual computer user) design their own approach to solving the problem where, the first step is to take a thorough inventory of all affected applications and gather all of the software license and support agreements that govern such applications to determine each party's rights and liabilities. After a survey of the problem, a detailed implementation schedule needs to be prepared and it should include time for testing/repairs and remedies/options if work is delayed. A detailed agreement should then be made with the vendor who is contracted to make the necessary fixes, and warranty provisions in the agreement are most important. He concludes by stressing that a good agreement is necessary to successfully deal with the many issues involved. However, given that the end of the millennium is approaching fast, a prudent company (individual) will construct alternate plans if compliance is not achieved on time.

The complete Observer #21 article can be found at: http://www.lawcircle.com/observer or you can request a 2-page copy from the NWA office.

... Alabama adds yet another dubious honor ... to it's weather history ... by Brian E. Peters, WCM Birmingham

Tornadoes are more commonly associated with the spring months in Alabama and not January. Since 1950, there had been 59 tornadoes recorded in January. The 24 January 1997 severe weather outbreak, however, has chocked up another first for Alabama...the fatality that occurred in Tuscaloosa County (man killed in a vehicle) was the first recorded tornado-related death in the United States in 1997. This dubious honor adds to some of the events over the last several years that have also been record-setting. In 1994, Alabama led the country with the highest number of tornado deaths, 22, all occurring with the Palm Sunday tornado on 27 March 1994. In 1995, Alabama led the nation for the second year in a row in the number of tornado deaths, seven (7). In 1996, Alabama again recorded seven (7) tornado deaths which was the second highest number in the nation. All of these records underscore the need to continually emphasize severe weather awareness...24 to 28 February will be weather awareness week in Alabama and, thanks to the support provided by the Alabama Department of Education, for the first time every school in the State will be receiving the severe weather awareness material to use in promoting weather safety to students.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL reviews WEATHER SATELLITE REQUIREMENTS

The National Weather Service's ability to provide accurate and timely forecasts may be seriously hampered if weather satellites aren't launched on schedule to replace those that break down, says a new report from a National Research Council committee and its panel. Five satellites should be in orbit at all times to provide uninterrupted coverage of the United States, the study group said. Because the satellites have limited life spans, 15 launches have been planned through 2010 to ensure that three working and two backup satellites are continuously in orbit. While this schedule should result in complete satellite coverage of the United States for the next 15 years, at least four satellites which are needed to maintain the launch schedule have not yet been ordered. Because these satellites may take years to build, the launch strategy will not work unless funding is obtained as soon as possible to purchase the new spacecraft. "This country depends on up-to-the-minute satellite data to provide information for severe weather warnings, aviation and marine forecasts, and other critical needs," said study chair George Gleghorn, retired vice president and chief engineer of the TRW Space and Technology Group.

"The Weather Service needs data each day for quick and reliable predictions. Plans to provide uninterrupted coverage appear solid, but they won't be successful if there are not enough satellites available as needed. The necessary funding should be provided now to allow at least four new satellites to be ordered as soon as possible." In addition, the Weather Service should closely coordinate coverage with European satellite providers, and a backup system should be developed for the ground-based command and data acquisition center at Wallops Island, Va. The center, which processes raw streams of data from one of the satellite systems, could be shut down by a hurricane, flood, or major fire, resulting in a complete cut-off of data. For that reason, a separate system should be in place at a remote location to ensure that satellite data can be processed, the study group said. Without this fundamental source of information, the Weather Service would be hampered in issuing severe weather warnings and making short-term forecasts, which would affect the general public as well as airlines, agriculture, shipping services, and other industries that must operate according to the weather. The National Weather Service receives data from satellite systems operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Two geostationary satellites continuously observe the contiguous 48 states, Hawaii, the southern part of Alaska, and adjacent oceans. These spacecraft provide time-lapse imagery that is essential for tracking hurricanes, thunderstorms, fog, winter storms, and other weather phenomena. In addition, two polar-orbiting satellites observe the Earth in north-south strips at least four times a day to assess weather trends and patterns as well as provide data for daily and longer-term forecasts. If satellites or their onboard equipment fail and a read replacement is not available, the Weather Service could experience significant gaps in data that are vital for providing timely warnings and forecasts, the study group said. For example, the loss of a geostationary satellite from 1989 to 1993 resulted in only partial coverage and, during the early stage of the failure, total blackouts of Hawaii and much of the Pacific Ocean. Limited coverage was provided by moving the existing satellite between the Atlantic and Pacific to provide partial data during storm seasons. However, this type of information loss could have been devastating if a blackout occurred shortly before a hurricane, when it would be impossible to reposition an existing satellite in time to provide critical data for issuing advance warnings. In addition, it took years to replace the failed satellite, further burdening the existing spacecraft and limiting coverage.

Because of concerns for providing adequate coverage, the study group emphasized the importance of having at least two operating geostationary satellites in orbit at all times. An additional geostationary satellite also should be stored in orbit if costs are not prohibitive. If this is not possible and a European satellite must be relied upon in an emergency, the United States should be ready to launch a replacement satellite of its own immediately. European satellites may be able to provide some backup if a U.S. satellite fails, but the European geostationary satellites furnish only limited data over the eastern United States and Western Atlantic that are not sufficient for U.S. needs. Moreover, two polar-orbiting spacecraft are needed along with the geostationary satellites to provide complete coverage, the study group said.

NOAA currently supplies two polar satellites, but plans are in place to merge its polar system with satellites operated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) as a cost-saving measure. To cover U.S. needs, the merged system, which will begin operating in 2008, will use data from a NOAA polar satellite, a DoD satellite, and a European satellite. Until the merger is completed, the Europeans have agreed to supply one polar satellite; NOAA will provide the other. The first European satellite is scheduled for launch in 2002. If the launch schedule is maintained, adequate polar coverage would be provided.
- NRC Press Release

BUDGET SHORTFALLS FOR NWS

The NWS faces colossal budget shortfalls causing painful decisions to be made that will no doubt affect the operational meteorology community. Send in your comments regarding this problem for the next Newsletter.

JOB CORNER

(Ed: The NWA lists job openings free from equal opportunity employers for the benefit of members. Also, see http://www.infi.net/~cwt/nwa-page.html or call the NWA office at (334) 213-0388 for possible short notice openings.)

Federal Contractor Seeks Weather Observers for mid-US. Dynamic Science Inc., 1821 Summit Rd., Cincinnati, Ohio 45237 Phone (513) 821-3773; Fax (513) 821-3773; e-mail: dynamic@mail.horandata.net Contact Person: Kurt Wuerfel, Regional Projects Manager DSI. Job Description: provide ASOS/AWOS augmentation, ASOS/AWOS back-up observation, and standard weather observation, maintain records, quality control for weather observations, limited aviation weather reporting, broadcast over local radio. Job Requirements: Must be able to pass FAA security check. Four-year Meteorology degree or three years experience as a weather observer, NWS certification, one or more years experience a plus, understanding of the ASOS/AWOS weather system/ hands on a plus, detail oriented, willing to work all shifts, must be willing to relocate. Federally Determined Wage Rate: Starting Rates vary by location ( $27,000 to $29,000). Supervisor/Station Manager: These positions are also needed and will be filled by the most qualified candidates. Pay = mid 30's. How to apply: Send Resume to Kurt Wuerfel at the address listed above. Note: You may call if you have any questions.

AccuWeather, Inc., offers career opportunities with the worlds leading and most diversified commercial weather service. You will have exciting opportunities to handle all types of weather forecasting for major business, media and government organizations. These include on-air broad-casting for radio stations; creative presentation of weather graphics; preparation of television and newspaper forecasts; snow and ice warning services; worldwide forecasting for agriculture; specialized forecasts for the transportation industry, utilities, businesses and resorts; computer applications; and many others. You will work with some of the nations leading forecast meteorologists in one of the worlds largest forecast centers, interacting with a staff of 300 employees. Our state-of-the-art facility provides our 85 forecast meteorologists with tools and computer technology unavailable elsewhere. Applicants need to be articulate and productive with outstanding forecasting and communication skills. Through progressive advancement, forecasters can become on-air meteorologists in major radio markets, or become involved in computer operations, graphic design, new product development or customer relations. AccuWeather also has positions available on our computer staff for meteorologists with programming experience. AccuWeather offers competitive salaries and an extensive benefits package including health insurance, 401K and profit sharing plans, life insurance and disability income. If you are an enthusiastic, hard working forecaster interested in employment in a dynamic growing company which offers superior opportunity for advancement, send a detailed resume to David H. Dombek, Director of Forecaster Hiring, AccuWeather, Inc., 619 W. College Ave., State College PA 16801; FAX: (814) 231-0621; e mail: resume@accuwx.com

Weather Services Corporation (WSC) is one of the country's oldest and largest commercial operational meteorological services. Since 1948, it has been providing industry, government and the media with accurate, customized, worldwide weather information. The wide variety of WSC clients are located across the US, around the world and throughout cyberspace. A staff of nearly 100 professionals is supervised by AMS Certified Consulting Meteorologists. WSC is located in a new, state-of-the-art, 24-hour per day, Global Operations Center in Lexington, Massachusettson Boston's route 128 Technology Highway. The most important resource of WSC is their employees. Each is provided with the finest tools and the opportunity to excel in a stimulating, fast-paced, professional environment. In addition to a competitive compensation and benefits package, WSC employees can participate in the growth and success of the company through a stock ownership plan. Recent and planned growth of WSC presents opportunities for both entry-level and experienced Operational Meteorologists; Graphic Artists with PC experience - multi-lingual capabilities are a plus; Radio Broadcasters; Journalists and Producers; Systems Analysts with C in VMS and UNIX environments; Data and Telecommunications Technicians; Telemarketers; and Sales Account Executives. To apply, please send resume to: Human Resources - N895, Weather Services Corporation, 420 Bedford Street, Lexington MA 02173; FAX: 617-676-1001; e-mail: hr@wx.com.

WeatherData, Incorporated is interested in hiring energetic, knowledgeable meteorologists who have operational forecasting as well as radar interpretation experience for Forecast/Storm Warning Meteorologist positions. This opportunity to apply your skills involves mesoscale severe storm warnings and short and long range forecasting for a diversified client base across the US. We are looking for dedicated meteorologists with excellent written and oral communication skills to become part of our dynamic, growing company. If you love weather and want to work with clients that take your work seriously, this is the opportunity for you. This position requires a bachelors degree in meteorology or the equivalent, and at least one year of professional forecasting and radar experience. Doppler radar interpretation preferred. At WeatherData, Incorporated, meteorologists use state-of-the-art equipment to make mesoscale forecasts. Real-time analysis of GOES satellite imagery, lightning data, surface observations, wind profiler data, Mesonet data and Doppler radar data from every NEXRAD site in the country occurs every day. WeatherData offers excellent salaries, benefits, profit sharing and moving expense allowance. We also provide our associates with many opportunities for advancement and professional growth. If you are up to the challenge of forecasting and communicating weather to our clients, and would like to join our team, send a cover letter and resume to: WeatherData, Incorporated, Attn: Sharol Youngers, Manager of Business Administration, 245 N. Waco St., Suite 310, Wichita, Kansas 67202.

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey invites interested individuals to apply for a position that has responsibility for managing the Department of Environmental Sciences' computer system as well as supporting instructional and research applications. This includes installation, configuration, and maintenance of software and hardware for two computer laboratories running meteorological/environmental applications in a networking environment. In addition, the incumbent is responsible for insuring data reception, storage, and backup plus supplying department-wide consulting.

QUALIFICATIONS: Requires a Bachelor's Degree in Meteorology, Environmental Sciences, Computer Science, or related field plus at least two years computing experience. This includes work with microcomputer and workstations running UNIX, OS/2, and WINDOWS; operating in a networked environment. Knowledge of programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, or Visual Basic is needed. Experience with UNIDATA meteorological analysis packages such as McIDAS, WXP, GEMPAK, and LDM and some teaching experience is preferred. Master's Degree or a combination of education and experience desirable. SALARY: $35,595

POSTING DATE: 12-30-96; CLOSING DATE: 2-28-97

TO APPLY: Written application consisting of a curriculum vitae, a summary statement of qualifications and interests, and the names, addresses, and phone numbers of three references should be sent to: Prof. Robert Harnack, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 231, Cook College-Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Rutgers is an Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity Employer. Employment eligibility verification required.

WORLD'S EXPERTS PLAN GLOBAL LOCATOR SERVICE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION

Experts from around the world have agreed on a standard for locating information, whether held in libraries, data centers, or published on the Internet. This lays the foundation for a virtual library of environmental data and information that will be easily accessible on global networks. "An information locator service is useful wherever people communicate, but there is a special urgency to the worldwide sharing of environmental information," said U.S. Vice President Al Gore. "Every year, governments and others spend billions of dollars collecting and processing environmental data and related technical information. "We now hold around the world an incredible wealth of information about the Earth and its inhabitants," the Vice President said. "That information could have a profound impact on our ability to protect our environment, manage natural resources, prevent and respond to disasters, and ensure sustainable development. Unfortunately, many potential users either do not know that it exists or do not know how to access it. This initiative will make use of base standards that are so essential for people to find the environmental data and information they need." The experts are representatives to the Global Information Society initiative, which was convened at the suggestion of Vice President Gore and organized by the G7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States, and the European Commission). The leaders of the Environment and Natural Resources Management project, which includes several other nations and organizations, are Larry Enomoto of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Eliot Christian of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). "The service standard is designed to make information easy to find", said Christian. "It is a natural complement to the World Wide Web that is such a wonderful tool for presentation. When we look for a particular piece of information, we often need to search many separate sources. We may not be satisfied with just scanning World Wide Web pages, just accepting the suggestions of one publisher, nor just being limited to information published in English. Libraries centuries ago confronted the same problem. They held an amazing diversity of content but had to work out common agreements on how to catalog it," Christian said. "Today, librarians and citizens everywhere rely on the common formats used in library catalogs. The information locator service builds on these standards as applied to electronic networks, and is positioned to evolve along with rapid advances in information discovery and natural language processing." The standard adopted for this service is ISO 10163, known in the United States as ANSI Z39.50. This standard specifies how electronic network searches should be expressed and how results are returned. It is adaptable to all languages and supports full-text search of documents as well as very large and complex bibliographic collections. The standard does not require a central authority or master index. Just as catalogs provide a common way to search many separate libraries, anyone can create information locators independently. By applying a standard that has been widely used for many years, this initiative takes advantage of existing networks and software to access a vast array of valuable resources, including hundreds of libraries, museums, and archives worldwide--some containing as many as 35 million locator records. It also fits in with many other international and national programs focused on improved access to information, including the Government Information Locator Service being implemented in the United States and elsewhere.

A new server developed by the European Commission for this project, available on the World Wide Web at http://enrm.ceo.org, provides an example of using this standard internationally. Further information on the information locator service can be found at http://www.g7.fed.us/gils.html

December, 1996 The Computer Law Observer Issue No. 21

NEGOTIATING THE END OF THE MILLENNIUM

by William S. Galkin, Esq. (biography at end)

Irony Billions of dollars, and the world's best and brightest, have been devoted to the development of information technologies. And, now, with the meteoric rise in use of the Internet, we seem finally to be at the dawn of a new era where information resources will truly permeate our lives - dramatically altering the landscape of mankind in a manner many compare to the industrial revolution. And yet, someone discovered a flaw, a fault line that runs through much of the system. A simple programming error, that when viewed with hindsight one wonders "How could anyone have made such an obvious mistake?" This article focuses on the legal issues involved in successfully negotiating a solution to what is often referred to as the "Year 2000 Problem".

Mistake Date calculations play an essential role in most applications. Almost all applications record information regarding the year with two digits (i.e., 96 for 1996). The basic functions involving dates include calculating, comparing and sequencing. Therefore, when a program wants to calculate a person's current age, it will perform a calculation by subtracting the person's date of birth from the current year. In my case, subtract 57 (1957) from 96 (1996) and the result is 39. However, when the new millennium arrives, the year information contained in most applications will be "00". The calculation of my age (i.e., 00 minus 57) produces an erroneous result of negative 57!

Magnitude All hardware and software systems are potentially affected by the Year 2000 problem, even applications that are resident with service bureaus. Major corporations are expected to have to pay at least $40 million to rectify the problem. The worldwide cost could reach $400 billion. Federal Express was reported as having paid 5 cents per line of code to correct the problem, which resulted in a $500 million total cost. Chubb Insurance has paid $180 million and the state of Nebraska has paid $32 million. The problem is estimated to affect 95% of all U.S. companies. To date, only one third of affected companies are undergoing conversion. Some estimate that either the cost to repair or the failure to repair could result in a bankruptcy rate of 1 to 5%. The repair process is complex and involves either a data solution or a procedural solution. The data solution involves the modification of each occurrence of a date. This requires a methodical line-by-line analysis of code. With each change, the affected logic must be revisited and the modification must then be tested. Mid-sized companies will often have millions of lines of code. As many as one in every 50 lines could have a date reference. Data entry screens and output formats will have to be modified as well. A procedural solution involves changing the processing methodology so that an application will know that "18" means "2018" instead of "1918". This approach is difficult to implement as well.

First steps Every affected company needs to design its own approach to the Year 2000 problem. Usually a team will be set up to oversee the process. The team will include the appropriate internal technical personnel as well as management and outside consultants. Financial and legal advisors may also need to be included. The first step is to take a thorough inventory of all affected applications and gather all of the software license and support agreements that govern such applications to determine each party's rights and liabilities. There are a variety of provisions that might be found in these agreements, especially for custom software or where agreements went through a negotiation process. Some provisions might obligate the vendor to assist with the repairs or impose liability for damages that occur due to the Year 2000 problem. Additionally, a licensee will need to identify all confidentiality restrictions that might be found in the license agreements in order that when the repair work begins, it can proceed efficiently without violating these provisions. Many modifications will require access to the source code. Therefore, it is important to determine whether a source code escrow agreement requires delivery to rectify such a problem.

Negotiating the cure.

Rectifying the Year 2000 problem is complex because of both the variable times when problems might arise and because of the variety of forms the problems might take. Accordingly, when hiring outside consultants to repair the problem, a careful agreement needs to be drafted to specify what the problem is, how and when it is going to be fixed, and what happens if it is not adequately fixed. Following is a discussion of some of the important issues that need to be considered:

DEFINITION OF PROBLEM: A survey of the problem is the first step. This can be performed in house, by a third party consultant or by the vendor hired to correct the problem. The results of this analysis will become an essential component of the agreement. The survey should include a catalogue of all applications reviewed and specifications as to what kind of corrections are needed for each application. There are a variety of correction methods that can be implemented - some will be appropriate for some applications, and not for others. The ideal goal is for the vendor to represent that all Year 2000 problems will be corrected, even those not listed in the survey results. However, most vendors will not agree to such a global representation.

CONFIDENTIALITY: The vendor will be having intimate contact with a large portion of the information about the company. Additionally, the company itself will be under confidentiality restrictions that may prohibit the company granting access to certain applications. Accordingly, the confidentiality issues need to be settled in advance.

IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE: It cannot be over stressed, that with Year 2000 repairs, time is of the essence. A detailed implementation schedule needs to be prepared and specific remedies and options need to be available if the schedule becomes delayed due to the actions of the consultant or the company.

EVALUATING PROGRESS: Having the work completed by a certain date, well in advance of December 31, 1999, if possible, may be crucial in accomplishing an effective transition. Accordingly, the vendor should be required to keep the company regularly informed of progress and of any delays.

CHANGE ORDERS: As the work begins to be performed, it is inevitable that additional tasks will be identified as needing to be performed. The agreement needs to be flexible enough to adjust for these changes in scope.

TIME OF WORK AND DISRUPTION: Much of the Year 2000 repair work will have to be performed when the system or certain applications are down. This means that companies will want this work performed at night or over the weekends. Accordingly, it is important that the agreement set forth when the system will be done, and who determines the down schedule.

TESTING PROCEDURES: Given the complexity of the repair methods, testing must be an essential component of the repair services. The vendor and the customer must develop and agree upon test criteria, how the tests will be performed, and when the system is considered to have passed the test. Additionally, it is important that a significant period of live use be a part of the test period. In order for this to be effectively available, the repair work must be completed well before December 31, 1999.

FOLLOW-UP REPAIRS: It is likely that the testing procedures will turn up problems and errors. These errors may or may not fall within the scope of the repair services. Accordingly, the vendor should agree to be available (i.e., have personnel available) to rectify whatever problems arise. This is an important provision. As the year 2000 approaches, vendors will be stretching themselves thinner and thinner to complete the work by the deadline. Without prior assurances, there may not be personnel available to perform these follow up services.

COST INCREASES; EMERGENCY SERVICES: Many service agreements are done on a time and materials basis and the vendor can increase the hourly rate after giving proper notice (e.g., 60 days' prior written notice). These provisions are workable when other vendors are available to substitute for a vendor that raises its price too much. As time goes on, it will be prohibitively expensive to find a substitute vendor, if one can be found at all.

LENGTH OF WARRANTY: Not all Year 2000 glitches will be apparent at the turn of the century. It may take months or even years for some to surface. The warranty provision needs to take this issue into account.

Other issues Obviously, all new license agreements should include Year 2000 compliance requirements. This is a complex provision and should be carefully drafted. However, a discussion of this provision is beyond the scope of this article. Given the cost to repair and the potential for damage resulting from lack of compliance, due diligence for any corporate acquisition or significant loan or investment, must include a thorough evaluation of this issue. Many boards of directors have been postponing dealing with the problem because of the large expense that will appear on their financial statements. To make matters worse, the Financial Accounting Standards Board emerging issues committee has determined that money spent on the Year 2000 Problem must be charged against the current year's earnings, and cannot be amortized.

However, a corporation that does not develop, in a timely manner, a complete compliance plan, will be a good target for shareholder suits against the officers and directors if failure in this regard results in a decrease in the value of the stock or company.

Conclusion Some companies are waiting for a "silver bullet" that will be developed which will simply and efficiently rectify the problem. However, the most optimistic predictions foresee the best technological developments providing at most a 30% savings in repair time and costs. The process of making systems Year 2000 compliant can be complex and fraught with unknown variables. A good agreement is necessary to successfully deal with the many issues involved. However, given that the end of the millennium is approaching fast, a prudent company will construct alternate plans if compliance is not achieved on time.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Mr. Galkin can be reached for comments or questions about the topic discussed in this article as follows: E- MAIL: wgalkin@lawcircle.com WWW: http://www.lawcircle.com/galkin TELEPHONE: 410-356-8853/FAX:410-356-8804 MAIL: 10451 Mill Run Circle, Suite 400 Owings Mills, Maryland 21117.

Mr. Galkin is an attorney in private practice. He is also the adjunct professor of Computer Law at the University of Maryland School of Law. He is a graduate of New York University School of Law and has concentrated his private practice on intellectual property, computer and technology law issues since 1986. He represents small startup, midsize and large companies, across the U.S. and internationally, dealing with a wide range of legal issues associated with computers and technology, such as developing, marketing and protecting software, purchasing and selling complex computer systems, launching and operating a variety of on-line business ventures, and trademark and copyright issues.

"NOT JUST REAL TIME....BUT LIVE WEATHER DATA!"

Yaros Communications, Inc. of St. Louis, Missouri (distributor of the popular "Weatherschool" software since 1988 to nearly 2 million classrooms nationwide announces a new web product that can provide classrooms and TV stations with not only FREE weather data but LIVE weather data from its new "ViewerNET Weather Workstation" for the web. Here's how it works:

Classrooms and TV Stations with the easy-to-install one-piece weather station connected to the site's computer can continuously monitor, record, graph and now even feed "LIVE" weather data (approx. 1 reading per second) directly from the rooftop weather station to any client PC on the world wide web using YCI's FREE JAVA client software. "There's a lot of talk of real-time these days," says Ronald Yaros, YCI President, but a 40 mph gust detected by one of custom designed units from a storm at one location an be seen is automatically displayed instantly at another site using easy-to-read graphics."

See it LIVE for yourself now at: http://www.yaros.com. The company provides the data, a free JAVA (or even Netscape plug-in) to retrieve the data and, for those selecting the latest JPEP graphic, a "snapshot of the current weather WITH a video shot of the sky above!" Yaros says, "This is just a preview of more exciting innovations to come in 1997!"
Ronald Yaros
ron@www.yaros.com
Yaros Communications, Inc.
http://www.yaros.com

Postflight Mission Summary for STS-80

January 10, 1997

The Space Shuttle Columbia touched down at the NASA Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) in Florida on December 7 at 1149 UTC. This marked another record for mission duration in the Shuttle program. From launch to wheel stop on landing the mission lasted 17 days 15 hours 54 minutes. Weather was a primary factor in delaying the landing until the third landing day.

Columbia lifted on STS-80 on November 19 at 1956 UTC from the Kennedy Space Center. Launch had been scheduled for November 14, but forecasts of unacceptable weather on launch day and scheduling conflicts with the planned Atlas rocket launch caused NASA mission managers to reschedule the launch day to the 19th. Weather was a primary reason for choosing November 19 as the launch date. Launch weather was GO as well as weather at the potential abort landing sites in the US and at the Transoceanic Abort Landing sites in Spain and Morocco with the exception of Moron where cloud ceilings were below limits.

Forecasting the weather for landing proved to be a challenging task. The weather forecast remained GO up until moments before the de-orbit burn. Surface weather observations received via digital voice and telephone communications, along with Doppler radar detection of clouds, led SMG forecasters to amend the landing weather forecast to NO GO just minutes from the de-orbit burn based upon a threat of a low cloud ceiling. The NASA Flight Director at the Mission Control Center decided to "waive-off" Columbia for another landing attempt approximately one hour later. Reconnaissance reports from the astronaut piloted Shuttle Training aircraft flying around the SLF also noted an increase in low level clouds. A cloud ceiling was subsequently observed at the SLF at just seven minutes after the possible de-orbit burn time. Surrounding surface weather observations and extrapolation of low cloud trends available on the first few visible images from the GOES-8 geosynchronous weather satellite raised the possibility of low cloud ceilings for the second landing opportunity. The NASA Flight Director at the Johnson Space Center again decided to waive off this time until the following day.

Weather forced another day in orbit for the crew of Columbia on December 6. Fog was forecast to envelop the SLF for the first landing opportunity near sunrise. Visibility in fog at the SLF dropped to 1/8 mile at what would have been the first landing opportunity. Some hope remained that fog would clear off in time for the second landing opportunity at the SLF. Weather was observed NOGO at the de-orbit time so Columbia was again waived off. The fog cleared off only 29 minutes after the second landing opportunity at KSC. High winds and turbulence were forecast at Edwards Air Force Base both at the surface and aloft so the NASA ellence in operational meteorology and related activities.

I will spend time in each monthly column discussing some aspect of our theme, including how well we market our value-added support to our customers and the tools we use in providing that support (including education, training and technology).

We currently have over 2,400 individual NWA members from a wide variety of government, the media and private-sector agencies, from students to retirees and from researchers to emergency managers to weathFlight Director waived the Shuttle off until the following day.

Weather at KSC for the December 7 landing initially looked to be problematic. Winds at Edwards Air Force Base were, however, expected to be lighter than on December 6 and within Flight Rule limits. Fog was again anticipated for the first landing opportunity just minutes before sunrise with low cloud ceilings and showers possible for the second opportunity for a Florida landing. Data from the instrumented 500 ft tower, the KSC area wind tower network, rawinsondes, and cloud cover observed on satellite imagery led to SMG's decision to remove the potential for fog and stratus from the landing weather forecast. Finally, satellite imagery, pilot reports, and lightning strike location reports were consulted to ascertain the age and opacity of a detached thunderstorm anvil which was moving in from the Gulf of Mexico into central Florida. Flight Rules require that optically opaque detached anvils less than three hours old be avoided by 20 miles to mitigate the risk of triggered lightning.

Columbia and its record setting crew touched down on the first landing opportunity of the day at 1149 UTC marking the completion of the 80th Space Shuttle mission.

Tim Garner was Lead forecaster for the ascent and entry phases of STS-80. The Assistant Lead/TAL site forecaster was Karl Silverman.

Cara Heist and Tim Oram acted as Lead Techniques Development Unit Meteorologists.
Submitted by: Tim Garner

Subj: Sky Awareness Week publicity ideas

I am putting together an updated guide (mini-version) of ways that local folks (universities, NWS, tv, etc) can help publicize Sky Awareness Week. See darft which follows. If you have any thoughts about this, I'd welcome them - Good, bad, and/or ugly. Suggestions for making it more usable are desired.

If you can rsvp in a few days, that would be helpful. I'm trying to get this out to some media PR types since Sky Week is only 3 1/2 months away.

Oh, section headings will be bold, etc.... you just get to see netscape e-mail version.....

Much thanks!!!!

******

Ideas for capitalizing on Sky Awareness Week

As more people have become involved in Sky Awareness Week programs, they have asked for ideas to better capitalize on the event in their area. So we have prepared the following to help you foster an increased awareness of the sky, meteorology, and related sciences during this week-long sky celebration. This is now our seventh year involved in this project, and it keeps growing thanks to your interest and support.

Please let us know what works (and what doesn't), so we can update this ideas package and other Sky Awareness Week materials for 1998.

We have worked hard to obtain corporate and governmental support for this celebration. The Weather Channel, SUNSOR (a provider of hand-held ultraviolet meters), Dutch Boy Paints, and Polaroid Corporation have either provided materials for schools and/or publicized the event. The National Science Foundation is also working with us to link our celebration to its National Science & Technology Week activities. If you know of any organizations that might want to co-sponsor Sky Awareness Week, please let us know.

The two most important aspects of the program involve obtaining a proclamation for your state and spreading the word among potentially interested groups. In many cases, there is already a state coordinator who has obtained or is working to obtain a proclamation. A state proclamation is probably more important than a national one because of its local ownership. Some people have indicated that they wanted to obtain a city or county proclamation, as well. This is fine. It may even afford additional publicity and interest. Upon request, we can provide you the name, address, telephone number and/or e-mail address of your state coordinator. We plan to post state proclamations at our Web site so interested people can easily download them.

Proclamations are free and they can provide a spark for attracting the media, education and other interest groups. Some proclamations may say very little or be rather generic. Others may play up state logos, state nicknames, or state mottoes. Some may remain focused on meteorology, while others may address environmental issues such as air pollution.

This variation is expected and can be used to focus on unique state issues or themes.

We have already obtained 42 state proclamations and a proclamation from the District of Columbia since 1991. We plan to request a national presidential proclamation for 1997. We have also begun to request that state legislatures "legislate" a recurring proclamation. We will also continue to list the event in "Chase's Calendar of Events," an annual publication to which many news media people refer.

Getting the word out to educators, the media, broadcast and government meteorologists, nature centers, museums, and others involves some work.

However, people that have access to media outlets (e.g., National Weather Service , weather broadcasters) can be very helpful. This is described in more detail below. Some state coordinators have asked us to do a mass mailing to the state's area educational service centers. If you provide us mailing information (preferably including the name of the appropriate contact person), we can do this very quickly through our automated mailing program. Obviously, posting information on Web Pages and encouraging educational, media, and meteorology groups to showcase the information will significantly enhance visibility.

The following are some specific ideas for NWS, university, and broadcast meteorologists to use. Ideas for teachers, nature center staffs, families, elderly care facilities, and others are contained in a 12-page guide entitled "101 Ways to Celebrate Sky Awareness Week." This guide is available from HOW THE WEATHERWORKS (see accompanying catalog).

Finally, we would appreciate feedback on the ideas we have provided here for 1997. We are contemplating marketing "cloud" bumper stickers and cloud buttons. HOW THE WEATHERWORKS now has two cloud charts available (grades K-3 and grades 3-12), as well as cloud post cards and cloud flash cards. These can be imprinted with corporate or station logos and used promotionally. We are also planning to revamp the "101 Ways..." guide into two or more versions (by age level appropriateness). And we are resurrecting our plans to obtain cloud postage stamps in time for the 200th anniversary of cloud naming in the year 2003.

You can reach us at the address and telephone number above, or at skyweek@weatherworks.com on the Internet. We will post updated Sky Awareness Week information on our home page (http://www.weatherworks.com/).

You may feel free to download and use the information from our Web site for use in your Sky Awareness Week related activities. Appropriate credit should be given for any materials used.

NWS meteorologists

Distribute sky and cloud information and press releases about Sky Awareness Week on the NOAA Weather Wire, NOAA Weather Radio, at storm spotter meetings, and during school visits. Note that Sky Awareness Week is not designed to conflict with severe weather awareness weeks.

Sky Awareness Week can be used to reinforce severe weather awareness campaigns. In addition to telling people about Sky Awareness Week, consider writing brief news releases about cloud naming, cloud folklore, weather forecasting rules based on cloud and sky observations, precipitation types, radar and satellite systems, and other cloud and sky topics.

Provide How The Weatherworks with names, addresses, telephone numbers and/or e-mail addresses of people whom you believe would want to receive information about Sky Awareness Week. This includes educational organizations, science museums, and nature and environmental facitities.

Include Sky Awareness Week as part of your educational outreach programs. For example, North Carolina has an extensive data collection program with schools across the state. The NWS Office in Raleigh has shared Sky Awareness Week information with these teachers in past years.

Share information with your cooperative observers. These people are very involved with weather and are probably already local authorities on the sky. They would probably also have a good time participating in Sky Awareness Week.

Post a cloud chart (preferably matted and framed) in the lobby of your office, where visitors can always see information about the sky. If you have a sky photographer at your office, see if he/she would be willing to share photographs for a cloud exhibit. Again, matte and frame photos. 11" x 14" size prints can make a striking exhibit. The exhibit can be tied to photos of severe storms, floods, and hurricanes to bring all weather elements together.

Also, post a copy of your state's proclamation. Some states will provide you with more than one copy. Otherwise use proclamations from earlier years to ensure that other offices throughout the state have a posted teaching tool.

Hold a springtime open house at which visitors can see weather observing and display equipment, meet with staff meteorologists, and see cloud pictures on display. Consider holding this event with television meteorologists, faculty from a nearby university with a meteorology (or related) program, and/or the local American Meteorological Society chapter.

Offer sky and cloud talks at local museums, science and nature centers, and other facilities.

Share information about your activities, copies of news and educational releases, and other activities with How The Weatherworks.

We will use these in preparing an update to this package for 1998 and also for several articles we are writing, including the AMS Bulletin, and various science education journals.

Post information about Sky Awareness Week on your Web Site. Include a copy of your state's proclamation, a link to our home page, and other information.

Encourage people to take the SKY QUIZ which is posted at the following Internet address: The quiz was designed jointly by The Weather Channel and How The Weatherworks.

Television (radio, and newspaper) meteorologists

You can probably do many of the things included on the NWS list. With the visual media at your disposal, be sure to display the state proclamation, print it, or read from it. Be sure to give the governor credit for his/her support of science and education.

Hold a children's art contest. Have children (e.g., up to age 12) submit hand drawn or painted pictures and show these as part of your weathercast. Some stations (we've seen it in south Florida and San Francisco) do this on a routine basis, not just during Sky Awareness Week. Recognize students on the air and perhaps with a station t-shirt or a visit to that school. Consider having older students submit weather photographs, instead. Award-winning pictures could be included in your station's weather almanac or weather calendar. Students could also be encouraged to submit their photos to WEATHERWISE Magazine's annual photography competition.

Teach about clouds as part of your regular broadcasting during Sky Awareness Week. Show still or time-lapse cloud motion sequences. If time is not available each day, consider using clouds as a theme for your weekly science report. Set your time lapse motion to music and create a sky symphony. If you don't already have a sky camera at your station, consider getting one.

Hold an open house at your television station. Visitors could see your weather set, experience Chromakey, and be shown weather observing and display equipment.

Be sure to discuss clouds and cloud watching as part of your regular school visitation program. Emphasize these leading up to and during Sky Awareness Week. Provide similar presentations to support scouting and related activities.

If you have a student or school weather observer network (and many stations are moving in this direction), be sure to have them report on the clouds. Sky Awareness Week can be used to emphasize the importance of observing in the scientific process.

Weather permitting (and fully addressing safety factors), consider a weathercast from a hot air balloon. Other outside shots (park, beach, mountain research station) can be used to show scenic sky shots. Consider a visit to the NWS' radiosonde release site or new Doppler radar facility.

Include information about Sky Awareness Week in your station's weather almanac or weather calendar.

Conduct a "Who Knows Clouds?" survey at a local shopping mall, bus stop, beach, or other "people" place. Find out who knows the different cloud types. Find out who can draw a picture of the sky while indoors (i.e., did they even look up?). Draw from the SKY QUIZ mentioned earlier.

Local AMS/NWA chapters and state education groups

Refer to the two lists above.

Help spread the word to educational and related groups.

Give out cloud charts, weather guides, or subscriptions to WEATHERWISE Magazine to science fair award winners (even if it occurs after Sky Awareness Week).

Hold an open house or fair involving people from across the weather profession. This includes television, NWS, university, private research, educational, and other meteorologists. Have a sky or cloud talk at your local chapter meeting during March or April to spread the word about Sky Awareness Week and to increase the awareness of chapter members about the sky.

Universities and Colleges

Refer to the three lists above.

Have faculty emphasize sky awareness in meteorology or related courses taught by faculty or graduate students. This is especially important in the introductory meteorology courses, often attended by people outside of the meteorology program (and many times future teachers).

  Barbara G. Levine                         H. Michael Mogil
      Teacher                     	            Meteorologist
 

****** --

Mike Mogil
weather educator
HOW THE WEATHERWORKS
1522 Baylor Avenue
Rockville, MD 20850
301-762-SNOW
hmmogil@weatherworks.com
http://www.weatherworks.com

Date: Tue, 21 Jan 1997 22:08:35 +0000
From: Brad Case

Subject: SKYWARN Training (spring must be just around the corner)

Taylor County Texas (Abilene) and the NWA, Theta Chapter present

THE ANNUAL SKYWARN WEATHER SPOTTER TRAINING SESSION WHICH WILL BE HELD ON FEBRUARY 8, 1996 FROM 9:00 A.M. - 3:00 P.M. AT ABILENE CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY, CAMPUS CENTER, HILTON ROOM (JUST WEST OF NORTH JUDGE ELY BLVD & AMBLER AVENUE -STATE HIGHWAY 351). PRESENTATIONS BY ABILENE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND TALKS BY LOCAL TV STATION METEOROLOGISTS. CONDUCTED BY METEOROLOGISTS FROM THE SAN ANGELO NEXRAD OFFICE IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE NATIONAL WEATHER ASSOCIATION AND, LOCAL FIRE DEPARTMENTS, AND THE AMATEUR RADIO EMERGENCY SERVICE.

Brad Case - bcase@camalott.com
http://camalott.com/~nwa
Taylor Co ARES, Assistant EC
ABI 147.76 Repeater

From WX-TALK:

ABUS34 KBHM 251818
PNSBHM

PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BIRMINGHAM AL
1215 PM CST SAT JAN 25 1997

... SURVEY OF TUSCALOOSA TORNADO ...

NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE METEOROLOGISTS WERE ABLE TO SURVEY THE DAMAGE CAUSED BY THE TORNADO THAT STRUCK THE TUSCALOOSA AREA ON THE AFTERNOON OF JANUARY 24, 1997. THE FOLLOWING IS THE INFORMATION FROM THAT SURVEY. SPECIAL THANKS GO TO THE TUSCALOOSA POLICE DEPARTMENT FOR THEIR ASSISTANCE IN PROVIDING A HELICOPTER FOR AN AERIAL SURVEY.

AT APPROXIMATELY 5:00 PM, A TORNADO BEGAN ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE WARRIOR RIVER, SOUTH OF INTERSTATE 59 AND WEST OF COUNTY ROAD 95. BESIDES TREES, THE INITIAL DAMAGE WAS TO SHINGLES OF AN APARTMENT COMPLEX IN THE CRABTREE AREA.

THE TORNADO MOVED ON A NORTHEASTERLY TRACK CROSSING U. S. 82 AND INTERSTATE 59. TWO BUSINESSES, BOOKS-A-MILLION AND GAYFER S, SUSTAINED ROOF DAMAGE.

THE TORNADO BECAME STRONGER AFTER CROSSING INTERSTATE 59 WITH SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER DAMAGE FROM THIS POINT TO THE END OF THE PATH. NUMEROUS TREES WERE DOWNED, SOME ROOFS WERE DAMAGED, AND SEVERAL OUT BUILDINGS WERE DESTROYED IN THE WOODLAND HILLS RESIDENTIAL AREA.

SEVERAL BUILDINGS WERE DAMAGED AT FIVE POINTS EAST, THE INTERSECTION OF STATE ROADS 215 AND 216, INCLUDING FOOD WORLD AND BIG-B, AMONG OTHERS. CARS WERE TOSSED ABOUT LIKE TOYS. ONE VEHICLE WAS TOSSED THROUGH THE ROOF OF THE FOOD WORLD. ANOTHER CAR WAS TOSSED FROM THE PARKING LOT OF THE FOOD WORLD INTO THE BACKYARD OF A HOUSE IMMEDIATELY NORTHEAST OF FOOD WORLD, A DISTANCE OF 300 TO 400 FEET.

THE TORNADO CONTINUED NORTHEAST THROUGH THE LYNN HAVEN RESIDENTIAL AREA CAUSING SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE TO NUMEROUS HOMES. TEN TO TWELVE HOMES SUSTAINED DAMAGE THAT RANGED FROM PARTIAL ROOF LOSS TO TOTAL ROOF LOSS.

THE TORNADO CONTINUED ACROSS TUSCALOOSA MEMORIAL GARDENS CEMETERY, PARALLELING AND CROSSING STATE ROAD 216. SIX TO EIGHT HOUSES IN THE SUMMERFIELD SUBDIVISION SUSTAINED LIGHT TO MODERATE DAMAGE. A COUPLE OF MOBILE HOMES AND SEVERAL OTHER BUILDINGS INCLUDING A SMALL CORNER GROCERY-TYPE BUSINESS WERE DESTROYED. THE TORNADO DISSIPATED IN A WOODED AREA JUST NORTH OF STATE ROAD 216 SHORTLY AFTER THAT AROUND 5:15 PM.

TUSCALOOSA COUNTY EMA ESTIMATES THAT BETWEEN 90 AND 100 STRUCTURES SUSTAINED SOME DEGREE OF DAMAGE.

THE TOTAL TORNADO PATH LENGTH WAS 10 MILES WITH A PATH WIDTH OF ABOUT 200 YARDS. ON THE FUJITA SCALE OF TORNADO INTENSITY, FROM F0 AS THE WEAKEST TO F5 AS THE STRONGEST, THE TORNADO WAS RANKED AS AN F2. THIS PUTS THE MAXIMUM WIND SPEED IN AN ESTIMATED RANGE FROM 113 TO 157 MILES PER HOUR.

TORNADO WATCH #29 WHICH INCLUDED TUSCALOOSA COUNTY WAS ISSUED AT 3:12 PM VALID UNTIL 10:00 P.M. A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WARNING WAS ISSUED AT 4:23 PM VALID UNTIL 5:15 PM. THE SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WARNING WAS UPGRADED TO A TORNADO WARNING WITH THE INITIAL REPORTS OF THE TORNADO AT 5:11 PM VALID UNTIL 6:00 PM.

THERE WAS ONE FATALITY, A MAN IN A VEHICLE IN THE WOODLAND HILLS AREA, AND TEN INJURIES, 8 WERE TREATED AND RELEASED, TWO WERE HOSPITALIZED.

TIMES ARE BASED ON A COMBINATION OF POLICE REPORTS, EMA REPORTS, AND DOPPLER RADAR IMAGES.

CONTACT: BRIAN E. PETERS
WARNING COORDINATION METEOROLOGIST
205-664-3010

156
ABUS34 KBHM 251834
PNSBHM

PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BIRMINGHAM AL
1240 PM CST SAT JAN 25 1997

... Alabama adds yet another dubious honor ... ...to it's weather history ...

tornadoes are more commonly associated with the spring months in alabama and not january. Since 1950, there had been 59 tornadoes recorded in january. Yesterday's severe weather outbreak, however, has chocked up another first for alabama. Based on information from the national weather service in birmingham as well as the storm prediction center in norman, oklahoma, the fatality that occurred in tuscaloosa county yesterday was the first recorded tornado-related death in the united state in 1997.

this dubious honor adds to some of the events over the last several years that have also been record-setting. In 1994, alabama led the country with the highest number of tornado deaths, 22, all occurring with the palm sunday tornado on march 27, 1994. In 1995, alabama led the nation for the second year in a row in the number of tornado deaths, seven (7). In 1996, alabama again recorded seven (7) tornado deaths which was the second highest number in the nation. And now, 1997 has begun with a substantial outbreak of severe weather.

all of these records underscore the need to continually emphasize severe weather awareness. The national weather service along with the alabama emergency management agency, the american red cross, and the alabama department of education are sponsoring severe weather awareness week in alabama during the week of february 24 to 28. Materials promoting severe weather awareness will be mailed to media outlets during the first week of february.

and, on a positive note, thanks to the support provided by the alabama department of education, for the first time ever in the state of alabama, every school in the state will be receiving the severe weather awareness material to use in promoting weather safety to students.

contact: brian e. Peters
warning coordination meteorologist
205-664-3010

A correction:

> > For those interested, here is the damage survey conducted by the Birmingham > NWSFO on the Tuscaloosa, Alabama tornado of January 25. > The tornado occurred on Friday, January 24 not the 25th. Sorry, Boyd

------------------------------

Date: Sat, 25 Jan 1997 22:52:30 -0600
From: "Boyd H. Webb, III"
Subject: Murfreesboro, TN Tornado Damage Survey

For those interested, here is the survey conducted on yesterday's (1/24/97) Murfreesboro, TN tornado. Boyd

649
ABUS34 KBNA 252313
PNSBNA
PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT...THE BARFIELD TORNADO
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE NASHVILLE TN
512 PM CST SAT JAN 25 1997

...NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SURVEY OF THE BARFIELD TORNADO THAT OCCURRED AROUND 5 PM CST FRIDAY...

OFFICIALS OF THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE OFFICE IN NASHVILLE CONDUCTED A GROUND SURVEY OF THE TORNADO THAT HEAVILY DAMAGED THE COMMUNITY OF BARFIELD AND THE SOUTH RIDGE SUBDIVISION...BOTH LOCATED ABOUT 5 MILES SOUTH OF DOWNTOWN MURFREESBORO.

ALTHOUGH THERE WERE A NUMBER OF SEVERE STORMS THAT OCCURRED ACROSS MIDDLE TENNESSEE DURING THE AFTERNOON AND EVENING OF FRIDAY...JANUARY 24TH. A SURVEY WAS CONDUCTED ON THIS STORM AS IT APPEARED TO PRODUCE THE MOST DAMAGE.

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE ESTIMATED THAT THE TORNADO INTENSITY BASED ON THE DAMAGE CHARACTERISTICS TO BE F4 (207 MPH TO 260 MPH) ON THE FUJITA TORNADO INTENSITY SCALE. THE SCALE RANGES FROM F0 TO F5 WITH AN F5 BEING THE STRONGEST. .

THE TORNADO FIRST TOUCHED DOWN ON YEARGAN ROAD ABOUT 6 MILES SOUTHWEST OF DOWNTOWN MURFREESBORO...WITH AN INTENSITY OF F1 (73 MPH TO 112 MPH) AND A WIDTH OF ABOUT 100 YARDS. AT THIS LOCATION...A SHEET METAL ROOF WAS PEELED BACK ON A BARN AND A COUPLE OF TREES WERE BROKEN OFF. ALSOCLOSE BY...A TRAILER WAS LIFTED OFF ITS FOUNDATION AND OVERTURNED AND SEVERAL TREES WERE UPROOTED.

THE TORNADO PROCEEDED NORTHEAST AND INCREASED TO F2 (113 MPH TO 157 MPH) INTENSITY AND A WIDTH OF 300 YARDS. AS IT STRUCK THE COMMUNITY OF BARFIELD...AN ENTIRE ROOF WAS LIFTED OFF A HOUSE...SEVERAL HOMES WERE PARTIALLY DESTROYED AND A BARN TOTALLY DESTROYED.

THE TORNADO CROSSED THE WEST FORK OF THE STONES RIVER AND THEN STRUCK THE SOUTH RIDGE SUBDIVISION...AS IT INCREASED TO ITS MAXIMUM INTENSITY OF F4 (207 MPH TO 260 MPH) WITH ITS WIDTH REMAINING AT 300 YARDS. A NUMBER OF HOMES IN THIS SUBDIVISION WERE PARTIALLY DAMAGED...WITH ABOUT A HALF DOZEN HOMES TOTALLY DESTROYED.

THE TORNADO THEN STRUCK A LARGE APARTMENT COMPLEX JUST WEST OF U.S. HIGHWAY 231 ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF MURFREESBORO...PRODUCING SOME STRUCTURAL DAMAGE AND EXTENSIVE ROOF DAMAGE AS IT WEAKENED TO F1 (73 MPH TO 112 MPH) INTENSITY AND ITS WIDTH DECREASING TO 150 YARDS.

THE TORNADO THEN CROSSED U.S. HIGHWAY 231 AND THE INDIAN WELLS GOLF COURSE. LARGE TREES WERE UPROOTED AND STRUCTURAL DAMAGE TO SEVERAL BUSINESSES OCCURRED AS IT APPROACHED INTERSTATE 24. THE TORNADO CONTINUED MOVING TO THE NORTHEAST ACROSS INTERSTATE 24...SNAPPING AND UPROOTING TREES AS IT NARROWED TO 50 YARDS WIDE.

ON THE SOUTHEAST SIDE OF MURFREESBORO NEAR THE INTERSECTIONS OF ELAM ROAD AND U.S. HIGHWAY 41...AND NEAR BRADYVILLE ROAD AND EAST RUTHERFORD BOULEVARD...THE TORNADO UPROOTED NUMEROUS TREES AND DAMAGED THE ROOFS OF SEVERAL HOMES. IT WAS AT THIS POINT THE TRACK OF THE TORNADO ENDED AS IT LIFTED BACK INTO THE CLOUDS.

THE TOTAL PATH LENGTH WAS ESTIMATED AT ABOUT 6 1/2 MILES.

USING THE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY OF DOPPLER RADAR...THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE WAS ABLE TO IDENTIFY ROTATION WITHIN THE STORM AND ISSUE A TORNADO WARNING MORE THAN 1/2 HOUR IN ADVANCE. A TORNADO WARNING FOR RUTHERFORD COUNTY WAS ISSUED AT 422 PM CST. THE TORNADO FIRST TOUCHED DOWN AROUND 5 PM CST.

HENRY STEIGERWALDT ACTING METEOROLOGIST IN CHARGE .

MIKE MURPHY HYDROLOGIST

Additional Action Needed to Ensure Continuous Weather Data

regarding a call > for papers for the joint meeting of the 50th annual Flight Safety > Foundation Air Safety Seminar; 27th international conference of the > International Federation of Airworthiness; and IATA. > > It is slated to be held November 4-6, 1997, in Washington DC, and one > of the major areas is called Flight Environment where desired subjects > include the following: > > - Icing Standards > - Severe Weather Events > - Operations in severe icing conditions > - Volcanic Ash > - Wind Shear > > Fifty to one hundred word abstracts should be sent, along with > the following information, to the address shown below by March 18, > 1997. Papers will be selected by May 30, 1997. If you are interested > in getting a copy of the full call for papers announcement, it would > also be available from the same address. > > Robert H. Vandel, Director of Technical Projects > Flight Safety Foundation > 601 Madison Street, Suite 300 > Alexandria, VA 22314 > 703-739-6700 x110 > 703-739-6708 (FAX) > > Information to be included: > - Author Name > - Paper Title > - Organization > - Position > - Full Mailing Address > - Phone and FAX Numbers > - Estimated Time of Presentation > - Sign and Date Submission Agreeing to the Following: > > A transfer of copyright to the Foundation is required for each paper > selected for presentation at the seminar. Submittal of an abstract or > paper implies agreement that the author shall transfer copyright to the > Foundation. In the interest of aviation safety, the Foundation allows > authors and the public, without fees or permissions, to reprint the > seminar papers in whole or in part, with appropriate credits. >

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Lynn Sherretz             sherretz@fsl.noaa.gov 
    R/E/FS5                                  
    325 Broadway              Forecast Systems Laboratory
    Boulder, CO 80303         National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
----------------------- Headers -------------------------------- From Dave_Sankey@mail.hq.faa.gov Fri Jan 31 20:57:50 1997 Return-Path: Dave_Sankey@mail.hq.faa.gov Received: from relay.dot.gov (relay.dot.gov [152.120.130.100]) by emin04.mail.aol.com (8.6.12/8.6.12) with ESMTP id UAA28850 for ; Fri, 31 Jan 1997 20:57:45 -0500 Received: from mail.hq.faa.gov (mail2.hq.faa.gov [152.123.190.6]) by relay.dot.gov (8.8.4/8.8.4) with SMTP id UAA05726; Fri, 31 Jan 1997 20:07:35 -0500 (EST) Received: from ccMail by mail.hq.faa.gov (SMTPLINK V2.11 PreRelease 4) id AA854770422; Fri, 31 Jan 97 19:37:00 EST Date: Fri, 31 Jan 97 19:37:00 EST From: "Dave Sankey" Message-Id: <9700318547.AA854770422@mail.hq.faa.gov> To: bethd@ll.mit.edu, bgb@ucar.edu, brucec@ncar.ucar.edu, cornman@ncar.ucar.edu, cunning@fsl.noaa.gov, david.rodenhuis@noaa.gov, dfleming@ametsoc.org, Donald.Carver@noaa.gov, eilts@NSSLA.nssl.uoknor.edu, elmore@ev.nssl.uoknor.edu, fcarr@ou.edu, fhauth@nas.edu, frederick.r.mosher@noaa.gov, fritsch@ems.psu.edu, geoff.dimego@noaa.gov, girz@fsl.noaa.gov, James.H.Henderson@noaa.gov, jesuroga@fsl.noaa.gov, jime@ll.mit.edu, johnson@NSSLA.nssl.uoknor.edu, jwilliam@usatin.gannett.com, kdroege@ou.edu, kraus@fsl.noaa.gov, kvansick@nsf.gov, markw@ll.mit.edu, mccarthy@ucar.edu, miller@fsl.noaa.gov, mueller@ncar.ucar.edu, mwolfson@ll.mit.edu, natweaasoc@aol.com, ralph.petersen@noaa.gov, rasmus@ncar.ucar.edu, sdc@ll.mit.edu, stevenson@volpe1.dot.gov, thomas.w.schlatter@noaa.gov, thomas@carney.mdn.com, wade@ucar.edu, warner@ncar.ucar.edu, wesw@ll.mit.edu, Dave.Pace@mail.hq.faa.gov, Warren_Fellner@mail.hq.faa.gov, kleonard@mail.hq.faa.gov, Don_G_Turnbull_at_ASW500P0@mail.hq.faa.gov, CARL_MCCULLOUGH@mail.hq.faa.gov, Kevin.Young@mail.hq.faa.gov, benn_deans@mail.hq.faa.gov Subject: Aviation Conference - Call for Papers Because the polar system must rely on a European satellite being in orbit for several years, the study group said, NOAA should continue to closely coordinate its program with the Europeans to ensure that spacecraft will be available and launched as needed. The project was funded by NOAA. The National Research Council is the principal operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. It is a private, non-profit institution that provides independent advice on science and technology issues under a congressional charter. Rosters for the committee and the technical panel follow. # # # [This news release is available on the World Wide Web at .] ------------------- Headers ---------------------------- From fhauth@nas.edu Mon Jan 27 15:46:18 1997 Return-Path: fhauth@nas.edu Received: from mrin04.mail.aol.com (mrin04.mx.aol.com [198.81.11.106]) by emin46.mail.aol.com (8.6.12/8.6.12) with ESMTP id PAA19748 for ; Mon, 27 Jan 1997 15:46:18 -0500 Received: from darius.nas.edu (darius.nas.edu [144.171.1.12]) by mrin04.mail.aol.com (8.7.6/8.6.12) with ESMTP id KAA01850 for ; Mon, 27 Jan 1997 10:20:22 -0500 (EST) Received: from nas.edu (chariot.nas.edu [144.171.1.14]) by darius.nas.edu (8.7.5/8.7.3) with SMTP id KAA14622 for ; Mon, 27 Jan 1997 10:22:12 -0500 (EST) Received: from cc:Mail by nas.edu id AA854389052; Mon, 27 Jan 97 10:08:00 EST Date: Mon, 27 Jan 97 10:08:00 EST From: "Floyd Hauth" Encoding: 303 Text Message-Id: <9700278543.AA854389052@nas.edu> To: natweaasoc@aol.com Subject: Draft News Release for January 28th Subj: NWA Newsletter article correction Date: 97-02-01 10:52:22 EST From: ashashy@nhc.noaa.gov (Andrew R. Shashy) To: NatWeaAsoc@aol.com In the last newsletter, mention was made of Tropical Prediction Center (TPC) changes with the Tropical Weather Discussions. The correct AFOS filename header is MIATWDAT and MIATWDEP, not MIATWOAT and MIATWOEP as noted in the NWA article. AFOS filenames MIATWOAT and MIATWOEP are Tropical Weather Outlooks for the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, respectively, and are only issued during hurricane seasons for each ocean. Thank you. Andrew R. Shashy, Meteorologist. ------------------ Headers --------------------------- From ashashy@nhc.noaa.gov Sat Feb 1 10:52:09 1997 Return-Path: ashashy@nhc.noaa.gov Received: from nhc-hp2 (nhc-hp2.nhc.noaa.gov [140.90.176.92]) by emin01.mail.aol.com (8.6.12/8.6.12) with ESMTP id KAA28178 for ; Sat, 1 Feb 1997 10:52:08 -0500 Message-Id: <199702011552.KAA28178@emin01.mail.aol.com> Received: from tafb-met2 (tafb-met2.nhc.noaa.gov) by nhc-hp2 with SMTP (1.37.109.16/16.2) id AA197332300; Sat, 1 Feb 1997 15:51:40 GMT X-Sender: ashashy@nhc-hp2.nhc.noaa.gov X-Eudora-Demo: NOT FOR RESALE - 90 DAY DEMONSTRATION COPY X-Mailer: Windows Eudora Version 2.0.3 Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" Date: Sat, 01 Feb 1997 12:28:38 +0000 To: NatWeaAsoc@aol.com From: ashashy@nhc.noaa.gov (Andrew R. Shashy) Subject: NWA Newsletter article correction ...Fifth Shuttle-Mir Docking Mission...PRIVATE The Space Shuttle Atlantis landed at Floridas Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at 1423 UTC [9:23 AM EST] on Wednesday, January 22, 1997 after a 10 day mission. Atlantis had launched from KSCs Pad 39B on Sunday, January 12th, at 0927 UTC (4:27 AM EST). The main objective of this mission was to dock with Mir, off-load supplies and experiments, exchange US astronaut Jerry Linenger for John Blaha, and return equipment and experiments from the Mir space station. John had spent almost four months on Mir when Atlantis lifted off. Prior to undocking almost four tons of water, supplies, and experiments had been exchanged, in addition to the two astronauts. NASA managers consider STS-81 a fully successful mission. For launch, the return to launch site forecast for KSC called for scattered low clouds and patchy shallow ground fog. High pressure covered the southeastern US and there was a weak east-west stationary front over central Florida, south of KSC. Surface winds at KSC were light north to northwest, and westerly aloft. Due to abundant low level moisture there were minor concerns early in the launch count that the low clouds might becoming broken or that the shallow fog might thicken and reduce visibility. Sounding balloons and reconnaissance reports dispelled concerns about the clouds. Patchy ground fog was being reported in the surface observations, but winds just above the surface were strong enough to preclude widespread fog. High pressure also covered the three overseas abort landing sites. Less than thirty minutes prior to launch, low clouds were detected approaching the runway at Zaragosa. The forecast was amended to NO GO for a low cloud deck and the prime overseas abort site was changed from Zaragosa to Moron. For landing day, high pressure over the western Atlantic ridged southwest over the Florida peninsula. Low level winds were southeasterly. The forecast for the first landing opportunity at KSC called for broken low clouds - NO GO. Low ceilings were evident on satellite imagery over the water and cloud level winds were southeasterly, bringing clouds in from off-shore. Through the landing count, balloon soundings indicated no change to the saturation or to the wind direction at the cloud level. Surface observations at the SLF went from broken to scattered three hours before landing and remained scattered until the first de-orbit decision point. However, with no clear and convincing evidence that the clouds would stay scattered through landing, the forecast was held at broken - NO GO. The NASA Flight Director at Mission Control waved-off the first opportunity. The low clouds went broken immediately following that decision and then became scattered, again. For the second opportunity, the balloon soundings indicated drying at the cloud level with only minor veering of the winds. The low clouds remained scattered. Visible satellite imagery became available, yielding better resolution of cloud groups, directions, and speeds and the forecast was amended to GO. The Flight Director gave the crew was given a GO to de-orbit and landed a little over an hour later under almost clear skies. Lead Meteorologist for STS-81 was Karl A. Silverman, working his 19th mission, third as Lead. Steve Sokol was Assistant Lead, and Doris Rotzoll worked as the Lead Techniques Development Unit (TDU) Meteorologist. SMG web page: http://shuttle.nasa.gov/weather/smghome.html Submitted by: Karl A. Silverman February 5, 1997 Subj: IA NWA Conf. Date: 97-02-12 12:33:32 EST From: fhauth@nas.edu (Floyd Hauth) To: natweaasoc@aol.com From WX-TALK: Date: Tue, 11 Feb 1997 01:24:45 -0800 From: John McLaughlin Subject: FINAL CALL FOR IA SVR CONF! One final use of bandwidth to remind folks that if you plan to attend the Iowa NWA Severe Storm and Doppler Radar conference on 14-15-16 March, I need to hear from you by 15 February. Last minute updates will be posted to www.ecity.net/~iowanwa/ The conference is coming along very well. We have 120 confirmed registrations as of this posting. This is fantastic considering that nearly three dozen NWS folks had hoped to come but had to cancel due to funding cuts. Special thanks to all those writing checks from their own bank accounts! I've also received several emails regarding Warren's Storm Chase conference in Las Vegas the same weekend. It is unfortunate that another conference will be held at the same time, but we go boldy forward. We have more than a dozen storm chase video clips to be shown Friday night the 14th before the main conference starts. Storm Track Magazine, Weather Graphix Technologies and Widespread Weather Services have joined other weather vendors to display during the weekend. The papers and workshops will be of value to all chasers by increasing your knowledge of severe storm structure and visual/radar identification. John McLaughlin KCCI TV ------------------ Headers --------------------------- From fhauth@nas.edu Wed Feb 12 08:46:09 1997 Return-Path: fhauth@nas.edu Received: from darius.nas.edu (darius.nas.edu [144.171.1.12]) by emin05.mail.aol.com (8.6.12/8.6.12) with ESMTP id IAA24067 for ; Wed, 12 Feb 1997 08:46:08 -0500 Received: from nas.edu (chariot.nas.edu [144.171.1.14]) by darius.nas.edu (8.7.5/8.7.3) with SMTP id IAA18620 for ; Wed, 12 Feb 1997 08:48:21 -0500 (EST) Received: from cc:Mail by nas.edu id AA855765779; Wed, 12 Feb 97 08:36:00 EST Date: Wed, 12 Feb 97 08:36:00 EST From: "Floyd Hauth" Encoding: 30 Text Message-Id: <9701128557.AA855765779@nas.edu> To: natweaasoc@aol.com Subject: IA NWA Conf. Subj: NOAA AWIPS Release Date: 97-02-14 07:19:32 EST From: fhauth@nas.edu (Floyd Hauth) To: natweaasoc@aol.com, cdespieg@gmu.edu To: Floyd Hauth cc: From: NOAA Constituent Affairs at internet@CCMNRC Date: 02/13/97 05:08:00 PM Subject: NOAA AWIPS Release TO: Floyd Hauth National Research Council CONTACT: Stephanie Kenitzer NOAA 97-8 NWS (301) 713-0622 February 13, 1997 Stephanie.Kenitzer@noaa.gov Nancy Guiden PRC Inc. (703) 556-2004 SECRETARY OF COMMERCE APPROVES PRODUCTION OF 21 ADVANCED WEATHER INTERACTIVE PROCESSING SYSTEMS The Secretary of Commerce today approved the National Weather Service's plan for production and installation of 21 interactive weather computer and communications systems that will help provide better weather- and flood-related services to protect life and property. The system, known as AWIPS, will allow forecasters to display and analyze satellite imagery, radar data, automated weather observations and computer-generated numerical forecasts, all in one workstation. "The National Weather Service has clearly demonstrated that AWIPS will help forecasters provide better weather and flood-related services to protect our citizens," said Commerce Secretary William Daley. "The system has already become an invaluable resource at 12 initial test sites." The NWS, a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration agency, will begin installing the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System at 21 field sites this summer and fall. A decision on installing the remaining sites is planned for December after completion of an operational test and evaluation of the third incremental software build. The NWS is developing AWIPS in incremental stages to allow for continuous feedback that can be incorporated into ongoing development efforts. A total of 148 AWIPS systems will be installed. "We are pleased with the Secretary's decision to move forward with installation of the centerpiece of our agency's modernization," said NWS Director Elbert W. Friday Jr. "AWIPS will allow our forecasters to make the most of the new technologies that we've put in place with the modernization. Now they will be able to rapidly gather and assess the most meaningful information needed to issue critical forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property." Over the past year, early versions of the sophisticated workstation and communications network were installed at 12 sites around the country for operational testing and evaluation. The tests demonstrated AWIPS' capabilities, including communication of weather satellite imagery and weather forecast guidance via a satellite broadcast network; the state-of-art workstation's ability to display and manipulate radar, satellite, and other weather data; and the operations of a central monitoring and communications facility. AWIPS is the integrating technology component of the NWS modernization effort, designed to provide the nation with improved weather services. To date, 114 of the 123 planned state-of-the-art NWS Doppler radars and 227 of the planned 306 NWS automated surface observing systems are operational nationwide. Two advanced geostationary weather satellites, GOES-8 and GOES-9, are keeping watch over the United States and well into the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. In addition, 13 River Forecast Centers and 111 of the planned 119 new weather forecast offices are serving the country. The NWS modernization is expected to be completed around the turn of the century. Twenty-one AWIPS systems will be installed as follows: .. Eleven systems at modernized weather forecast offices: Oklahoma City, Okla.; Minneapolis and Duluth, Minn.; Bismarck, N.D.; Hastings, Neb.; Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas; New Orleans/Baton Rouge, La; State College and Philadelphia, Pa.; New York City; Portland, Ore. .. Five systems at River Forecast Centers: Minneapolis; Fort Worth; New Orleans/Baton Rouge; State College, Pa.; and Portland, Ore. .. Two systems at the National Weather Service Training Center in Kansas City, Mo.; .. Three systems at NWS regional headquarters: Central Region Headquarters, Kansas City, Mo.; Eastern Region Headquarters, Bohemia, N.Y.; and Western region Headquarters, Salt Lake City, Utah. AWIPS is being developed by NOAA and PRC Inc. of McLean, Va. PRC, a subsidiary of Litton Industries Inc., with more than 5,600 employees in 150 offices nationwide, is a leading provider of information technology and systems-based solutions for the U.S. government and commercial customers. More information about AWIPS is available on the Internet at: http://tgsv5.nws.noaa.gov/msm/awips/awipsmsm.htm ### Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System or AWIPS, a new high-speed computer and communications network, is the centerpiece of the modernization of the National Weather Service. With AWIPS, NWS forecasters will be able to access all the data from the modernized observing systems, including advanced satellites, the new Doppler weather radar network, and automated surface observing systems, as well as numerical model data, together all on one workstation. AWIPS will help NWS forecasters deliver more accurate and timely warnings and forecasts because it increases their ability to quickly see, understand and respond to evolving weather er enthusiasts. Our membership is growing, but not as fast as the challenges we face. Wes Junker described some of those challenges in his last Presidents Message. Each year brings its own unique weather challenges the flooding rain and snow in the Northwestern United States and the Florida crop freeze are some of our latest catastrophic weather events. I mention these events to reemphasize the fact that our customers will still expect us to provide increasingly more accurate weather services, even as we face the other challenges of severe budget cuts, downsizing and other cost saving programs. I will need help from all our membership to determine our common course of action. Congratulations to our new NWA Council members. A complete list of new officers and councilors is included later in this newsletter (page 3). A new feature in this years newsletter is a short biography on one of your Council members, emphasizing his or her operational meteorology experience or interests. I hope one or more of these members experiences matches yours and you will be willing to contact them and provide ideas, suggestions, and feedback that is critical to our success as an association. This month, we will focus on Dr. Jim Moore, our new NWA Vice President (page 4). Let me offer some well-deserved thanks as I close. First, thanks to Wes Junker for his service to NWA during 1996 the way he handled the CWSU issue was right on target. Second, thanks to Kevin Lavin for beinsystems. Forecasters can rapidly relay that information to the emergency management community, the media, the general public and other users. AWIPS will be the nerve center of operations at all modernized Weather Forecast Offices and River Forecast Centers. AWIPS also will allow NWS forecasters to make the most of the new technologies that have been put in place as part of the modernization. With AWIPS, forecasters can access radar, satellite, numerical model, and other data; analyze fast-breaking storms; generate warnings and forecasts; and get that information to the people who need it -- all from one workstation. Today, forecasters need three or more systems to gain access to the information they need and disseminate the products they produce. The AWIPS system is composed of two primary elements -- the forecast office or site-level component and the communications network. At the sites, the work station will be the main interface between weather forecasters and the rest of the AWIPS system. NWS forecasters will spend the majority of their time at the work station interpreting and analyzing data, and preparing weather forecast products for transmission. Forecasters will view large amounts of imagery, graphics, and alphanumeric displays in carrying out the operational mission of the NWS. A communications network will feed data to each AWIPS site, distribute information among the AWIPS sites, and provide for dissemination of information to the public and other external users. A one-way, point-to-multipoint satellite broadcast service called NOAAPORT will be used to distribute the very large amounts of data products which are collected and produced at NOAA central facilities. Data distributed via NOAAPORT will be accessible at all NWS sites and by any appropriately equipped ground station operated by private sector organizations, universities, and other users. In addition to NOAAPORT, the AWIPS sites will be interconnected via a high-speed data network of terrestrial communications lines. This network will allow two-way, point-to-point communications among the AWIPS sites for the exchange of data and products which are locally collected/produced. For more information about the AWIPS system contact NOAA/NWS Public Affairs at (301) 713-0622. End of Newsletter