A QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE FOR OPERATIONAL FORECASTING PAPERS

John D. Gordon
NWS/Warning & Forecast Office
Old Hickory, Tennessee

I. INTRODUCTION

There has been a cornucopia of operational forecasting papers written on a wide variety of topics in recent years. It is very arduous for the operational forecaster to keep track of scattered binders, pamphlets, journals, and notebooks of meteorological and hydrological papers and studies within the individual's office. This is the first revision of the paper that was originally published as Central Region TSP 98-01. Due to many requests, the manuscript now has been consolidated to include both hyperlinked texts and non-hyperlinked texts. Many topics have been expanded, such as CSI, MCS, tornadoes, and the WSR-88D. In addition, many new topics, such as microphysics, dynamic cooling, gust fronts, and several case studies have been added.

This guide will help fill the gap for the operational forecaster by indexing the various topics by season and author. Older rules of thumb and techniques were included, such as the Magic Chart (Chaston 1989), Forecasting Ground Blizzards (Van Ess 1985), and Improving Over MOS Guidance (Hendrickson 1983). Additional references are included on newer operational techniques, such as Estimating the VIL of the Day (Wilken 1994), Heavy Rain Forecasting Techniques (Funk, 1993), and Rotational Shear Nomograms (Falk, 1998).

II. SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Scientific Services Divisions (SSD) from Central, Eastern, Southern, and Western regions provided indices for all Technical Attachments (TA), Applied Research Papers (ARP), and Technical Memoranda (TM) for the last 10 years. In addition, various internet home pages were perused, both civilian and military, for more material. Finally, conference preprints and post-prints were obtained to complete this guide. This guide is by no means a complete list of the various subjects, but rather attempts to give the forecaster several perspectives from different authors.

This guide is separated by subject matter, and attempts to cover most weather phenomena that affect the operational field forecaster. A few of the authors topics are listed under two different subject titles. For example, "Composite 500 mb Arctic Outbreak Patterns" by Van Ess, is listed under both ARCTIC and 500 MB.

The material can be used in two ways. If the forecaster wants to prepare for an upcoming weather season, he or she can look through the references on a particular subject. Secondly, if a forecaster is writing a paper or forecast study, they have a quick and easy list of references right at their fingertips from which to begin. Due to large number of subjects, the guide has been broken down into five parts: spring, summer, fall, winter, and general topics. The links provided in this document will take the reader to those papers that are available online. For a paper that is not available online, the link will connect you to the bibliography line. It is hoped that this guide will help you to become a better operational forecaster.

III. SPRING SEASON and THUNDERSTORMS

ADAP - Byrd (1994), Bothwell (1988), Waldstreicher (1988),

BOOKEND VORTEX - Pfost and Gerard (1997)

BOUNDARIES - Atkins and Weisman (1998), Markowski et al., (1998), Maddox et al., (1980)

BOW ECHO - Przybylinski (1995)

BOW ECHO: CASE STUDIES - Gerard (1997), Przybylinski and Schmocker (1993)

BOW ECHO: METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS - Johns (1993)

BOW ECHO: OBSERVATIONS - Klimowski et al., (2000), Weisman (1993)

CAPE VERSUS HELICITY - Evans (1997), Mead (1995), Johns et al., (1990)

CAPPING INVERSION & THUNDERSTORMS - Emlaw (1991)

CHECKLIST - Gordon and Albert (2000), Miller (1972)

DERECHO: SPRING CASE STUDIES - Rose and Troutman (1998)

DERECHO: WSR-88D CASE STUDY - Small (1996)

DOWNBURSTS - Ladd (1992)

DRY MICROBURST - Vasiloff et al., (1998), Vasiloff (1997), Wakimoto (1984)

EHI - Davies (1993)

ELEVATED CONVECTION: EVALUATING WIND SHEAR - Jungbluth and Kula (1997)

ELEVATED MIXED LAYER: PREDICTING SEVERE STORMS - Lanicci and Warner (1991a), Lanicci and Warner (1991b),                                                                                                            Lanicci and Warner (1991c), Lanicci (1985)

EQUILIBRIUM LEVEL - Liles (1983)

FORECASTING - Jungbluth (1996), Johns and Doswell (1992), Maddox and Doswell (1982)

GUST FRONT - Chapman and Holmes (1998)

HAIL - Smith (1996), Moore and Pino (1990), Shanklin (1989)

HAIL & THE WSR-88D VIL - Edwards and Thompson (1998)

HELICITY - Mead (1995), Craven (1992), Davies-Jones et al., (1990)

HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY - Kingsmill (1993)

HORIZONTAL CONVECTIVE ROLL - Edwards et al., (2000)

HP SUPERCELLS - Moller and Przybylinski (1990)

HP SUPERCELLS: WSR-88D - Przybylinski et al., (1993)

JET STREAM - Glass (1993), Uccellini (1990)

LEFT MOVER SEVERE THUNDERSTORM - Phillips (1994)

LIGHTNING: FORECASTING CONVECTIVE WEATHER - Lewis (1989)

LIGHTNING: RADAR OBSERVATIONS - Elson and Margraf (1996)

LIGHTNING: TORNADIC SUPERCELL - Perez et al., (1995), Kane and LaPenta (1991)

LOW TOPPED THUNDERSTORMS - Boyne (1995), Murphy and Woods (1992)

MACROBURST ON RADAR - Achtemeier et al., (1993)

MESOSCALE PREDICTION - Fujita (1992)

MICROBURST - Byrd (1990), Ellis and Oakland (1989)

MIXING RATIO - Weinbrecht (1987)

MOISTURE COVERGENCE - Bothwell (1986)

NOCTURNAL JET - Belles (1993)

NOCTURNAL SEVERE OUTBREAKS - Fike (1996)

NON-SUPERCELL TORNADOES - Britt and Miller (1999), Smith (1996)

NORTHWEST FLOW - Johns (1984)

OUTBREAKS: BOW ECHOES VERSUS SUPERCELLS - Johns and Hart (1993)

OUTBREAKS: COLD CORE - Goetsch (1988)

PROFILER - Rich (1992)

REAR FLANK DOWNDRAFT - Pfost et al., (1997), Lemon and Doswell (1979)

SATELLITE - Goetsch (1987), Purdom (1986)

SATELLITE: COMMA CLOUDS - Millard and Carr (1982)

SATELLITE: ENHANCED V SIGNATURE - McCann (1981)

SATELLITE: IR - Byrd (1987)

SATELLITE: TRAINING CASE STUDY - Weaver et al., (1999)

SATELLITE: WATER VAPOR - Ellrod (1990)

SEVERE PULSE THUNDERSTORMS - Konvicka (1989)

SINGLE THUNDERSTORM POTENTIAL - Falk et al., (1998)

SMALL/MINI SUPERCELLS - Grant and Prentice (1996), Davies (1993)

SPLITTING THUNDERSTORMS -Graham and Staudenmaier Jr. (1997), McCann (1983),

SQUALL LINES - Schafer (1996), Bluestein and Jain (1985)

STORM RELATIVE WIND - Thompson (1998)

SUPERCELLS - Moller et al., (1994)

SUPERCELLS: SOUNDINGS - Edwards and Thompson (2000)

SUPERCELLS: HODOGRAPHS - Bunkers et al., (2000), Brown (1990)

TORNADIC SQUALL LINE - Wolf (2000)

TORNADO - Branick (1995), Doswell et al., (1993), Johns and Sammler (1989)

TORNADO: ANTECEDENT SURFACE CONDITIONS - Livingston and Wilson (1986)

TORNADO: ANTICYCLONIC - Monteverdi et al., (2000)

TORNADO CASE STUDY: JARRELL, TX 5/27/97 - Corfidi (1998)

TORNADO CASE STUDY: LAWRENCE COUNTY, TN 4/16/98 - Gordon et al., (2000)

TORNADO CASE STUDY: LOWER OHIO VALLEY 6/2/90 - Manuel and Delisi (1993)

TORNADO CASE STUDY: MISSISSIPPI 11/27/94 - Pfost et al., (1995)

TORNADO CASE STUDY: OKLAHOMA OUTBREAK 5/3/99 - Thompson and Edwards (2000)

TORNADO CASE STUDY: PLAINFIELD, IL 8/28/90 - Fujita (1991)

TORNADO: EXITING TROPICAL CYCLONES - Edwards (1998)

TORNADO: FORECASTING SHEAR MAGNITUDES AND HODOGRAPHS - Davies (1989)

TORNADO: MOUNTAINS - Evans and Johns (1996), Fujita (1989)

TORNADO: PREPAREDNESS, SPOTTERS, MEDIA, & WSR-88D - Foster et al., (1995)

TORNADO: RAPID SCAN - Purdom and Weaver (1992)

VARIABILITY OF STORM RELATIVE HELICITY - Markowski et al., (1998), Davies-Jones (1993)

VERY LARGE HAIL (4" & GREATER) - Polston (1996)

VIL DENSITY - Amburn and Wolf (1995), Wilken (1994)

WET BULB ZERO - Shanklin (1989)

WET MICROBURST - Atkins and Wakimoto (1991)

WIND AND INSTABILITY - Davies (1993)

WIND GUSTS - Frazier (1994)

WINDEX - McCann (1994)

WSR-88D: BOW ECHO - Gerard (1997)

WSR-88D: DEEP CONVERGENCE ZONE - Lemon and Burgess (1993)

WSR-88D: ELEVATED CONVECTION - Labas (1995)

WSR-88D: LRM PRODUCTS - Turner (1995)

WSR-88D: MARC SIGNATURE - Wally (1998)

WSR-88D: MESOCYCLONE CHARACTERISTICS DURING AN OUTBREAK - Turnage et al., (2000)

WSR-88D: NOMOGRAMS - Brown (1997)

WSR-88D: NON-SUPERCELLULAR TORNADO - Lemon and Quoetone (1995) Amburn and Piltz (1993)

WSR-88D: PREDICTING TORNADO TOUCHDOWNS - Lewis (1998)

WSR-88D: SHEAR PRODUCTS - Falk and Parker (1998), Wilken (1997)

WSR-88D: SPECTRUM WIDTH - Buller and Mentzer (1998)

WSR-88D: TVS - Trapp and Mitchell (1995b)

WSR-88D: TVS: DESCENDING & NONDESCENDING - Trapp et al., (1999)

WSR-88D: VIL VERSUS ROTATIONAL RELOCITY - Murphy et al., (1994)

WSR-88D: WARNING DECISION TECHNIQUES - Falk (1997), Quoetone et al., (1999)

700-500 MB LAPSE RATE - Craven (2000), Doswell III et al., (1985)

IV. SUMMER SEASON

CONVECTIVELY INDUCED VORTICITY CENTER (CIVC) - Imy (1985)

DERECHOS - Johns et al., (1990)

DERECHO: SUMMER CASE STUDY - Miller and Johns (2000)

FLASH FLOOD DECISION TREE - Johnson and Moser (1993)

FLASH FLOOD FORECASTING - Doswell et al., (1995)

HAZE - Corfidi (1996)

HEAT CHECKLIST - Falk and Christmas (1989)

HEAT INDEX - Rothfusz (1990)

HEAVY RAINFALL FORECASTING - Funk (1993), Junker (1992)

HEAVY RAINFALL & FLASH FLOOD FORECASTING - Maddox (1979b), Maddox et al., (1979)

HEAVY RAINFALL: BIG THOMPSON CANYON, CO (7/76), & RAPID CITY, SD (6/72) - Maddox et al., (1978)

HEAVY RAINFALL: CASE STUDIES - Glass et al., (1995), Capriola (1993)

HEAVY RAINFALL: CHEYENNE, WY 8/1/95 - Glancy and Daseler (1986)

HEAVY RAINFALL: CLIMATOLOGICAL FAVORED THICKNESS - Rose et al., (1999)

HEAVY RAINFALL: GREAT FLOOD OF 1993 - Junker et al., (1995)

HEAVY RAINFALL: JOHNSTOWN, PA 7/19/77 - 7/20/77 - US Department of Commerce (1977)

HEAVY RAINFALL: HODOGRAPHS & CHECKLIST - Hendricksen (1993)

HEAVY RAINFALL: USING PROFILER & SATELLITE DATA - Smith (1993)

HP SUPERCELL: FLASH FLOOD - Moore et al., (1995)

MCS - Daly (1998a), Daly (1998b), Maddox (1980)

MCS: DAYTIME SURFACE GEOSTROPHIC WIND MAXIMUM - Augustine (1992)

MCS: DISSIPATION - Gale et al., (2000)

MCS: ELEVATED - Rochette et al., (1996)

MCS: LATE AFTERNOON TROPOSPHERIC SIGNALS - Augustine and Caracena (1993)

MCS: MARC - Schmocker et al., (1996)

MCS: MOVEMENT - Corfidi (1998), Corfidi et al., (1995)

MCS: POTENTIAL VORTICITY STREAMER - Tollerud et al., (2000)

MONSOONAL CHECKLIST - Haro (1998)

MVC - Schmidt (2000)

SATELLITE - Thiao et al., (1995), Goetsch (1982)

TROPICAL CYCLONE: TORNADO ENVIRONMENTS - Vescio et al., (1996), McCaul Jr. (1991), Weiss (1985)

TROPICAL CYCLONE: COASTAL FRONT TORNADOES - Hudgins and Frederick (1997)

WESTERN USA THUNDERSTORM GUST POTENTIAL - McDonald (1976)

WSR-88D HEAVY RAIN CASE STUDY - Egger and Vasiloff (1998)

WSR-88D MESO-VORTICES IN HURRICANE BERTHA (1996) - Wright and Bennett (1997)

V. COOL SEASON

COLD AIR FUNNELS - Cooley (1978)

COLD CORE THUNDERSTORMS - Grant (1995)

CLOUDS - Walawender (1994)

ELEVATED CONVECTION - Banitt (1999), Colman (1990a), Colman (1990b)

FOG - Croft et al., (1997), Logan and Hunter (1997), Naistat (1988), Feldt and Hughes (1979)

INDICES - Rogash (1994)

LIGHTNING AND TORNADO RELATIONSHIP - Carle and Orville (1995)

POPS - Lulofs (1994)

SATELLITE FOG PRODUCT - Canepa and Strobin (2000)

TORNADO - BENTONIA, MS 12/10/99 - Gerard et al., (2000)

TORNADO - COOL SEASON CONDITIONS - Vescio and Thompson (1998)

TORNADO - NORTHERN CALIFORNIA - Blier and Batten (1993)

TORNADO - RALEIGH, NC 11/28/88 - Gonski et al., (1989)

WSR-88D SUPERCELL - Calianese et al., (1996)

VI. WINTER SEASON

ARCTIC - Van Ess (1997), Van Ess (1985)

BLIZZARD CASE STUDY - Holsten and Hendricks (1997), Sykes (1966)

CHECKLIST - Gordon (1997)

COMPOSITE CHART - Janish et al., (1996)

COUPLED JET CASE STUDY - Shea and Przybylinski (1995)

CSI: CASE STUDIES - Mann (1997), Browning and Foster (1995), Colman (1992)

CSI: EQUIVALENT POTENTIAL VORTICITY - Moore and Lambert (1993)

CSI: FORECAST TECHNIQUES - Snook (1992)

CSI: RELATIONSHIP TO THUNDER AND HEAVY SNOW - Bradshaw (1994)

CSI: WSR-88D - Grumm et al., (1994)

DYNAMIC COOLING - Steigerwaldt (1998)

EAST COAST SNOWSTORMS - Kocin and Uccellini (1984)

EVAPORATIVE COOLING - Matthews (1996), McNulty (1988)

EXPLOSIVE CYCLOGENESIS CHECKLIST - Gurka et al., (1995)

FLOOD - Naglic (1990)

FREEZING PRECIPITATION - Weber (1998), Cortinas Jr. and Crisp (1995)

FREEZING RAIN & ICE PELLETS - Johnson (1999), Weber (1998)

FREEZING RAIN & THE WSR-88D - Thomas and Marwitz (1995), Leduc (1992)

HEAVY RAINFALL - Moore and Gagan (2000)

HEAVY SNOW CASE STUDY - Cobb and Albright (1995)

HIGH WIND DECISION TREE FOR W TX & SE NM - Murdoch and Deberry (1999)

INSTABILITY BURST - Scofield and Robinson (1990), Scofield (1989)

INSTABILITY BURST: CASE STUDY - Medlin (1993)

ISENTROPIC - Garcia (1999), Wilken (1990)

JETS & QG - Hakim and Uccellini (1992), Wilken (1990), Uccellini and Kocin (1987)

LAKE EFFECT SNOW - Niziol et al., (1995), Niziol and Levan (1992), Niziol (1987)

LAKE EFFECT SNOW: HOURLY FORECAST SOUNDINGS - Niziol and Mahoney (1997)

LAKE EFFECT SNOW: 850 TEMP, 850/700 UVV, 850/700 RH - Evans (1996)

LIGHTNING - Hunter et al., (1998), Holle and Watson (1996)

LOW LEVEL WIND SHEAR - Faught and Rosemark (1992)

MAGIC CHART - Outlaw (1994), Kirkpatrick (1990)

MICROPHYSICS - Staudenmaier Jr. (1999), Baumgardt (1999)

MOISTURE FLUX CONVERGENCE - Bodner (1996)

PRECIPITATION TYPE - Czys et al., (1996), Mamrosh (1993), Ramer (1993), McNulty (1988)

PROFILERS - Schumacher (1993)

SATELLITE - Scofield and Robinson (1990), Beckman (1989)

SATELLITE (IR) & SNOW BAND WIDTH - Morrison (1989)

SATELLITE TECHNIQUES FOR FORECASTING HEAVY SNOW - Johnson (1995)

SEA FOG and STRATUS - Johnson and Graschel (1992)

SNOW ACCUMULATION VERSUS SOIL TEMPERATURE - Brown (1989)

SNOWSTORM: CENTRAL ROCKIES 12/98 - Jones et al., (1999)

SNOWSTORM: LOUISVILLE 1/94 - Funk and Moore (1993)

SNOWSTORM: STORM OF THE CENTURY (3/93) - Bradshaw (1994)

SQUALL LINE - Trayers and Riordan (1996)

STRATOCUMULUS - Bilke (1994)

SURPRISE SNOWSTORM - Gerard et al., (1998)

SYNOPTIC REGIMES - Mathewson and Nouhan (1999)

TEMPERATURE & SNOW COVER - Jensen (1997), Richardson (1990), CRH (1973)

TROPOPAUSE FOLD: STORM OF THE CENTURY (3/93) - Holiday and Smith (1995)

TORNADO - Herlad and Morgan (1998)

WINDEX - Lundstedt (1993)

WSR-88D BRIGHT BANDING - Bailey (1998), Somrek (1995)

WSR-88D FREEZING RAIN & OVERRUNNING - Prater and Borho (1992)

WSR-88D & LIGHTNING - Gremillion and Harms (1999)

925 MB - Figurskey (1994)

500 MB - Van Ess (1997), Steigerwaldt (1991)

200 MB - Schumacher (1996)

VII. GENERAL TOPICS

ACARS - Martin (2000), Mamrosh (1993)

AVIATION: LOW LEVEL SHEAR - Johnson (1994)

AVIATION: "OCCASIONAL" - Felton (1993)

AVIATION: PIREPS - Arkell (1991)

AVIATION: PROFILER DATA - Thaler (1992)

BARNES OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS - Cook (1999), Cook (1999)

COASTAL FLOOD FORECASTING - Sobien and Paxton (1998)

CONVEYOR BELTS - Kubina (1997)

DAM FAILURE - Kane et al., (1996)

DEFORMATION ZONE - Steigerwaldt (1986), L. Funk (1982)

DOWNSLOPE WIND - Dunn (1999), Tesar and Keighton (1997)

FIRE WEATHER - Lyster and Murdoch (1999)

FORECAST STUDY - Nastrom (1990)

GOES SOUNDER - Schrab (1997)

GRAVITY WAVES - Koch et al., (1997), Abelman (1989)

HEAVY RAIN AND FLOODING: NWS EASTERN REGION - LaPenta et al., (1995), Optiz et al., (1995)

HYDROLOGY - Stewart (1991)

ISENTROPIC - Moore (2000), Hickman (1996), Truett (1987)

JETS & QG - Thaler (1991), Berry (1988)

LIGHTNING - Holle and Lopez (1993)

LOW LEVEL JET - Beckman (1995)

MESOHIGHS - Charney and Fritsch (1996)

MODEL BIASES - HPC (2000), Sullivan et al., (1993)

MODEL: MRF - Oravec (1995)

MODEL: RUC - Myers (1996)

MOS & TEMPERATURES - Ansuini (1996), SRH SSD (1994), Hendrickson (1983)

MOUNTAIN WAVE - WRH SSD (1985)

OROGRAPHIC - Huston (1990)

PATTERN RECOGNITION - Togstad (1989), Browning (1986)

PRECIPITABLE WATER - Schultz (1982)

PRESSURE - Leblang (1989), Sangster (1985)

PROFILER - Phillips and Baker (1993), Thaler (1989)

PUBLIC FORECASTING - Truett (1996)

QPF - Amburn (1994), Junker (1993)

SATELLITE: EXTRATROPICAL CYCLONES - Scofield and Spayd Jr. (1983)

SATELLITE: FORECAST FUNNEL - Scofield (1993)

SATELLITE: HEAVY PRECIP CONVECTIVE CATEGORIES - Scofield (1985)

SATELLITE: HEAVY PRECIP ESTIMATES - Scofield (1985)

SATELLITE: SUBTLE HEAVY RAINFALL SIGNATURES - Spayd Jr. and Scofield (1983)

SATELLITE: USERS MANUAL - Bader et al., (1992)

SKEW-T - Hart and Korotky (1991)

STATEMENTS - Smith (2000), Tipton and Hamen (1999)

THETA E - Baker (1992)

VORTICITY & UPPER LEVEL FRONTS - Gibson (1995)

WAKE LOW - Voelker (200)

WATERSPOUT FORECASTING - Brown and Rothfuss (1998)

WATER VAPOR PLUME - Scofield and Robinson (1990), Beckman (1987)

WSR-88D: CLUTTER SUPPRESSION - Haines (1996), Sanders and Vasiloff (1996), Lipe and Phillips (1996)

WSR-88D: MESOCYCLONES AT LONG RANGES - Glass and Przybylinski (1994)

WSR-88D: PRECIPITATION ESTIMATES - Sampson (1995)

WSR-88D: PRF - Phillips (1995)

VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am very grateful to Mark A. Rose, Journeyman Forecaster at WFO Old Hickory, TN for all of his computer assistance.

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Central Region SSD, 1973: Max Temperature with Snow, CR Technical Attachment 73-5, 2 pp.

Charney, J.J., and M. Fritsch 1996: The Formation of Mesohighs in Non-Convective Environments. Preprints, 15th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Norfolk, VA, 242-244.

Cobb H.D., and W.F. Albright, 1995: The 8 February 1995 Heavy Snow Event Over Northeastern North Carolina, ER Technical Attachment 95-8A, 10 pp.

Colman, B., 1992: An Example of Conditional Symmetric Instability, CR Technical Attachment, 92-03, 9 pp.

_________, 1990: Thunderstorms Above Frontal Surfaces in Environments Without Positive CAPE. Part I: A Climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1103-1121

_________, 1990: Thunderstorms Above Frontal Surfaces in Environments Without Positive CAPE. Part II: Organization and Instability Mechanisms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1123-1144.

Cooley, J.R., 1978: Cold Air Funnel Clouds. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 1368-1372.

Cortinas, J.V. Jr., and C.A. Crisp, 1995: Preparing a Freezing Precipiation Forecast Using a Mesoscale Model. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Dallas, TX, 171-175.

Craven, J.P., 2000: A Preliminary look at Deep Layer Shear and Middle Level Lapse Rates during Major Tornado Outbreaks. Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, 547-550.

_____, 1992: Using Storm Relative Helicity as a Forecasting Tool, SR Technical Attachment 92-31, 11 pp.

Croft, P.J., R.L. Pfost, J.M. Medlin and G.A. Johnson, 1997: Fog Forecasting for the Southern Region: A Conceptual Approach. Wea. and Forecasting, 12, 545-556

Czys, R.R., R.W. Scott, K.C. Tang, R.W. Pryzbylinski, and M. Sabones, 1996: A Physically Based Nondimensional Parameter for Discriminating Between Locations of Freezing Rain and Ice Pellets. Wea. and Forecasting, 11, 591-598.

Daly, B.F., 1998: MCS Propagation. NWS Training Center Audio Teletraining Student Guide, 19 March 98, 14 pp.

________, 1998: MCS Propagation. NWS Training Center Pre-Audio Teletraining Background Primer, 20 March 98, 20 pp.

Davies, J.M., 1993: Wind and Instability Parameters Associated with Supercell and Non-Supercell Tornado Events in the Southern High Plains. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, 51-55.

__________, 1993: Small Tornadic Supercells in the Central Plains. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, 305-309.

__________, 1993: Hourly Helicity, Instability, & EHI in Forecasting Supercell Tornadoes. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, 107-111.

__________, 1989: On the Use of Shear Magnitudes and Hodographs in Tornado Forecasting. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Monterey, CA, 219-224.

Davies-Jones, R.P., 1993: Helicity Trends in Tornado Outbreaks. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, 56-60.

__________, D. Burgess, and M. Foster, 1990: Test of Helicity as a Tornado Forecast Parameter. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, Alberta, Canada, 588-592.

Doswell, C.A. III, R.A. Maddox, and H.E. Brooks, 1995: Flash Flood Forecasting: An Ingredients-Based Methodology. Preprints, 5th CMOS Workshop on Operational Meteorology, Edmonton, Alberta, Canadian Meteor. and Oceanographic Soc., 149-156.

______________, S.J. Weiss, and R.H. Johns, 1993: Tornado Forecasting: A Review. The Tornado: Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction and Hazards. Geophys. Monogr. No. 79, Amer. Geophys. Union, 557-571.

______________, F. Caracena, and M. Magnano, 1985: Temporal Evolution of 700-500 mb Lapse Rate as a Forecasting Tool -- A Case Study. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Indianapolis, IN, 398-401.

Ellis, M.D., and S.K. Oakland, 1989: Convergence Aloft as a Precursor to Microbursts. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Tallahassee, FL, 190-192.

Ellrod, G.P., 1990: Applications to GOES Water Vapor Imagery to Severe Storms Analysis. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, Alberta, Canada, 154-159.

Emlaw, M., 1991: Estimating the Strength of the Capping Inversion and the Probability of Strong Convection. NOAA Tech Memo NWS SR-134, NWS, SR Headquarters, SSD, Fort Worth, TX, 24 pp.

Falk, K.W., and S.C. Christmas, 1989: An Intense Heat Checklist. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Monterey, CA, 475-480.

Faught, D.M., and M.S. Rosemark, 1992: Strong-Wind-Induced Low Level Wind Shear: An Operational Forecasting Method, CR Technical Attachment 92-05, 7 pp.

Feldt, J.J., and L.A. Hughes, 1979: Forecasting Radiation Fog, CR Technical Attachment 79-1, 5 pp

Felton, D., 1993: The Cost of "Occasional" at Seattle-Tacoma Airport. Postprints, NWS Aviation Workshop, Boulder, CO, 111-116.

Fike, P.C., 1996: Synoptic Environments Associated with Nocturnal Severe Local Storm Outbreaks. Preprints, 18th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Francisco, CA, 325-329.

Figurskey, D., 1994: The Use of the 925 mb Temperature Data in Diagnosing Winter Precipitation Type, CR Technical Attachment 94-17, 10 pp.

Foster, M.P., A.R. Moller, R.P. Kleya, G.F. Ely, and J.P. Stefkovich, 1995: The April 25, 1994 Dallas Tornadoes: Interfacing Preparedness, Spotters, The Media, and WSR-88D Observations. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Dallas, TX, J(2)19 - J(2)24.

Frazier, M., 1994: The Prediction of Thunderstorm Wind Gusts Based on Vertically Integrated Water Content and Storm Echo Tops, ER Technical Attachment 94 Number 7-B, 9 pp.

Fujita, T., 1992: An Overview of Mesoscale Prediction. Preprints, Symposium on Weather Forecasting, Atlanta, GA, J49 - J54.

_______, 1991: Plainfield Tornado of 28 August 1990. ARL Research Paper No. 234. Technical Report 234, Univ. of Chicago, 16 pp.

_______, 1989: The Teton-Yellowstone Tornado of 21 July 1987. Monthly Weather Review, 117, 1913-1940.

Funk, T.W., 1993: Heavy Rainfall Forecasting Techniques, CR Technical Attachment 93-06, 10 pp.

Funk, L., 1982: Operational Use of the Deformation Zone Concept in Analyzing and Forecasting Cloud Boundaries. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Seatle, WA, 336-341.

Gerard. A., 1997: An Overview of the Rapid Evolution of a Bow Echo/LEWP Complex in the ARLATX Region. SR Technical Attachment 97-2, 6 pp.

Gibson, C., 1995: Operational Use of Potential Vorticity to Identify the Location and Movement of Upper-Level Fronts, WR Technical Attachment 95-15, 14 pp.

Glancy, R.T., and J.A., Daseler, 1986: Meteorological Analysis of the Conditions which Produced the Record Flood at Cheyenne, Wyoming. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Kansas City, MO, 119-123.

Glass, F.H., D.L. Ferry, J.T. Moore, and S.M. Nolan, 1995: Characteristics of Heavy Convective Rainfall Events Across the Mid-Mississippi Valley During the Warm Season: Meteorological Conditions and a Conceptual Model. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Dallas, TX, 34-41.

_________, and R.W. Pryzbylinski, 1994: Operational Considerations for the Detection of Mesocyclones at Long Ranges. Postprints, 1st WSR-88D Users Conf., Norman, OK, 427-438.

_________, 1993: The Role of Ageostrophic Motions Associated with an Upper Level Tropospheric Jet Streak on the Pre-Storm Environment. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, 112-117.

Goetsch, E.H., 1988: Forecasting Cold Core Severe Weather Outbreaks. Preprints, 15th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Baltimore, MD, 468-471.

___________, 1987: Summary of Significant Satellite Signatures Involving Thunderstorms, CR Technical Attachment 87-9, 4 pp.

___________, 1982: Use of Satellite Interpretation in Mesoscale Nowcasting of Summertime Convection Over the Gulf of Mexico and Nearby Coastal Zone. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Seatle, WA, 206-213.

Gonski, R.F., B.P. Woods, and W.D. Korotky, 1989: The Raleigh Tornado - 28 November 1988 An Operational Perspective. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Monterey, CA, 173-178.

Grant, B., and R. Prentice, 1996: Mesocyclone Characteristics of Mini Supercell Thunderstorms. Preprints, 15th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Norfolk, VA, 362-365.

_______, 1995: Elevated Cold Sector Severe Thunderstorms: A Preliminary Study. Nat. Wea. Digest, 19, 4, 25-31.

Gremillion, M.S., and D.E. Harms, 1999: Lightning Initiation Signatures Indicated by Doppler Radar. Preprints, 29th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 900-903.

Grumm, R.H., D. Nicosia, and G. Forbes, 1994: WSR-88D Observations of Conditional Symmetric Instability Snowbands over Central Pennsylvania. Postprints, 1st WSR-88D Users Conf., Norman, OK, 125-137.

Gurka, J.J., E.P. Auciello, A.F. Gigi, J.S. Waldstreicher, K.K. Keeter, S. Businger, and L.G. Lee, 1995: Winter Weather Forecasting Throughout the Eastern United States. Part II: An Operational Perspective of Cyclogenesis. Wea. and Forecasting, Vol. 10, 21-41.

Hakim, G.J., and L.W. Uccellini, 1992: Diagnosing Coupled Jet-Streak Circulations for a Northern Plains Snow Band from the Operational Nested Grid Model. Wea. and Forecasting, 7, 26-48.

Hart, J.A., and W.D. Korotky, 1991: The Sharp Workstation -V 1.50. A Skew-T/Hodograph Analysis and Research Program for the IBM and Compatible PC. User's Manual. 62 pp.

Hendricksen, G.C., 1993: Characteristic Hodographs for Excessive Rainfall Events in a Semi-Tropical Air Mass East of the Appalacians. Postprints, 3rd Nat. Heavy Precipitation Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA, 239-248.

Hendrickson, J., 1983: Improving Over MOS POP Guidance, CR Technical Attachment 83-6, 5 pp.

Hickman, S. F., 1996: An Analysis of a High Wind Event Using Isentropic Surfaces, WR Technical Attachment 96-05, 19 pp.

Holiday, C.E., and D.R. Smith, 1995: The Role of Tropopause Undulation in the Development of the "Blizzard of '93" (12-15 March 1993). Preprints, 14th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Dallas, TX, 80-84.

Holle, R.L., and A.I. Watson, 1996: Lightning During Two Central U.S. Winter Precipitation Events. Wea. and Forecasting, 11, 599-614.

_________, and R.E. Lopez, 1993: Overview of Real-Time Lighting Detection Systems and Their Meteorological Uses, NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL NSSL-102, 68 pp.

Huston, D.D., 1990: Orographic Lift in a Seemingly Flat Environment, CR Technical Attachment 90-16, 11 pp.

Imy, D.A., 1985: A Different Look at Convective Parameterization. Preprints, 6th Conf. on Hydrometeorology, Indianapolis, IN, 266-269.

Janish, P.R., C.A. Crisp, J.V. Cortinas Jr., R.L. Holle, and R.H. Johns, 1996: Development of an Ingredients Based Approach to Forecasting Hazardous Winter Weather in an Operational Environment. Preprints, 15th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Norfolk, VA, 56-59.

Johns, R.H., and J.A. Hart, 1993: Differentiating Between Types of Severe Thunderstorm Outbreaks: A Preliminary Investigation. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, 46-50.

_________, 1993: Meteorological Conditions Associated with Bow Echo Development in Convective Storms. Wea. and Forecasting, 8, 294-299.

_________, and C.A. Doswell III, 1992: Severe Local Storms Forecasting. Wea. and Forecasting, 7, 588-612.

_________, K.W. Howard, and R.A. Maddox, 1990: Conditions Associated with Long-Lived Derechos - An Examination of the Large Scale Environment. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, Alberta, Canada, 408-412.

__________, J.M. Davies, and P.W. Leftwich, 1990: An Examination of the Relationship of 0-2 km AGL "Positive" Wind Shear to Potential Bouyant Energy in Strong and Violent Tornado Situations. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, Alberta, Canada, 593-598.

__________, and W.R. Sammler, 1989: A Preliminary Synoptic Climatology of Violent Tornado Outbreaks Utilizing Radiosonde Standard Level Data. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Monterey, CA, 196-201.

__________, 1984: A Synoptic Climatology of Northwest Flow Severe Weather Outbreaks Part I, Nature and Significance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 449-464.

Johnson, E., 1995: Updated Satellite Technique to Forecast Heavy Snow. Wea. and Forecasting, 10, 1995, 219-228.

Johnson, G.A., and J. Moser, 1993: A Decision Tree for Forecasting Heavy Rains from Mid-Latitude Synoptic Patterns in Lousiana Generally from Late Fall Through Spring. Postprints, 3rd Nat. Heavy Precipitation Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA, 189-194.

___________, and J. Graschel, 1992: Sea Fog and Stratus: A Major Aviation and Marine Hazard in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Preprints, Symposium on Weather Forecasting, Atlanta, GA, 55-60.

Johnson, J., 1994: Identification of a Clear Air Roll Turbulence and Low Level Wind Shear Event by the WSR-88D Radar. Postprints, 1st WSR-88D Users Conf., Norman, OK, 95-101.

Jungbluth, K., and A. Kula, 1997: A Proposed Method for Evaluating Vertical Wind Shear when Elevated Convection is Anticipated. Iowa Technical Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, 7-11.

__________, 1996: The Severe Weather Analyst (SWAN) Forecast Funnel. Iowa Technical Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, 21-25.

Junker, N.W., R.S. Schneider, and R.A. Scofield, 1995: The Meteorological Conditions Associated with the Great Midwest Flood of 1993. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Dallas, TX, (J4) 13-17.

__________, 1993: Why Forecasters Can Improve Quantitative Precipitation Guidance from the Numerical Models. Postprints, 3rd Nat. Heavy Precipitation Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA, 71-80.

__________, 1992: Heavy Rain Forecasting Manual. NWS Training Center, 91 pp.

Kane, R.J., M. Gillen, K. Kostura, G.V. Loganathan, D.F. Kibler, and J. Warner, 1996: Hydrometerological Analysis of the Timber Lake Flash Flood and Dam Failure. Preprints, 15th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Norfolk, VA, 272-275.

________, and K.D. LaPenta, 1991: A Look at the Lightning Characteristics of the Northern Illinois Tornadic Supercell of August 28, 1990, ER Technical Attachment 91 Number 2B, 11 pp.

Kingsmill, D.E., 1993: Helmholtz Instability Along a Gust Front. Does it have a Role in Convective Initiation? Preprints, 17th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, 686-690.

Kirkpatrick, J.D., 1990: A Case Study, with Focus on Magic Chart and PIVA, for the Snow Event of October 19,1989 in Kentucky, CR Technical Attachment 90-21, 10 pp.

Kocin, P.J., and L.W. Uccellini, 1984: A Review of Major East Coast Snow Storms. Preprints, 10th Conf. Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Clearwater Beach, FL, 189-198.

Konvicka, T., 1989: Forecasting Severe Pulse Thunderstorms: A Case Study Example. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Monterey, CA, 125-129.

Kubina, W., 1997: An Overview of Conveyor Belts. Iowa Technical Journal Vol. 5, No. 1, 19-22.

Labas, K., 1995: WSR-88D Aspects of Elevated Convection, CR WSR-88D Operational Notes 95-05, 6 pp.

Ladd, J.W., 1992: Downburst Forecasting. Postprints, NWS Aviation Workshop, Kansas City, MO, 379-388.

Lanicci, J.M., and T.T. Warner, 1991a: A Synoptic Climatology of the Elevated Mixed Layer Inversion over the Southern Great Plains in Spring. Part I: Structure, Dynamics, and Seasonal Evolution. Wea. and Forecasting, 6, 181-197

________________________, 1991b: A Synoptic Climatology of the Elevated Mixed Layer Inversion over the Southern Great Plains in Spring. Part II: The Life Cycle of the Lid. Wea. and Forecasting, 6, 198-213.

________________________, 1991c: A Synoptic Climatology of the Elevated Mixed Layer Inversion over the Southern Great Plains in Spring. Part III: Relationship to Severe-Storms Climatology. Wea. and Forecasting, 6, 214-226.

___________, 1985: An Operational Procedure Using Elevated Mixed-Layer Analyses to Predict Severe Storm Outbreaks. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Indianapolis, IN, 406-409.

LaPenta, K.D., B.J. McNaught, S.J. Capriola, L.A. Giordano, C.D. Little, S.D. Hrebnach, G.M. Carter, M.D. Valverde, and D.S. Frey, 1995: The Challenge of Forecasting Heavy Rain and Flooding Throughout the Eastern Region of the National Weather Service. Part I: Characteristics and Events, Wea. and Forecasting, Vol. 10, 78-90.

Leblang, R.S., 1989: A Short Range Forecast Technique Based on Pressure Tendencies, CR Technical Attachment 89-38, 5 pp.

Leduc, M.J., 1992: Mesoscale and Doppler Radar Forecast Techniques for Assessing the Potential of Freezing Rain Events. Ontario Region Technical Note No. ORTN 9202, 22 pp.

Lemon, L.R., and E.M. Quoetone, 1995: WSR-88D and Visual Obervations of a Non-Supercellular Storm and Tornado. Preprints, 27th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Vail, CO, 156-159.

__________, and C.A. Doswell III, 1979: Severe Thunderstorm Evolution and Mesocyclone Structure as Related to Tornadogenesis. Monthly Weather Review, 107, 1184-1197.

__________, and D.W. Burgess, 1993: Supercell Associated Deep Convergence Zone Revealed by a WSR-88D. Preprints, 26th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Norman, OK, 206-208.

Lewis, J., 1989: Real Time Lightning Data and its Application in Forecasting Convective Weather. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Monterey, CA, 97-102.

Liles, C., 1983: A Surprise Tornado...and a Case for the Equilibrium Level, SR Technical Attachment, 4/19/83, 8 pp.

Lipe, J., and L. Phillips, 1996: An Example of the Use of 88D Clutter Suppression, SR Technical Attachment 96-23, 1 pp.

Livingston, R.L. and L.F. Wilson, 1986: Relating Antecedent Surface Conditions to Violent Tornado-Producing Thunderstorms. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Kansas City, MO, 229-234.

Lulofs, H.J., 1994: A Technique for Generating Local POP Guidance During Stratified Precipitation Events at Portland, Maine, ER Technical Attachment 94 Number 4B, 18 pp.

Lundstedt, W., 1993: A Method to Forecast Wintertime Instability and Non-Lake Effect Snow Squalls Across Northern New England, ER Technical Attachment 93 Number 11A, 13 pp.

Maddox, R.A., and C.A. Doswell III, 1982: Forecasting Severe Thunderstorms: A Brief Evaluation of Accepted Techniques. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Antonio, TX, 92-95.

___________, 1980: Mesoscale Convective Complexes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 61, 1374-1387.

___________, L.R. Hoxit, C.F. Chappell, 1980: A Study of Tornadic Thunderstorm Interactions with Thermal Boundaries. Monthly Wea. Review, 108, 322-336.

___________, 1979b: A Methodology for Forecasting Heavy Convective Precipitation and Flash Flooding. Nat. Wea. Dig., 4, 30-42.

___________, C.F. Chappell, and L.R. Hoxit, 1979: Synoptic and Mesoalpha Aspects of Flash Flood Events. Bull. Amer. Soc., 604, 115-123.

___________, L.R. Hoxit, C.F. Chappell, and F. Caracena, 1978: Comparison of the Meteorological Aspects of the Big Thompson and Rapid City Flash Floods. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 375-389.

Mamrosh, R.D., 1993: The Use of Aircraft-Reported Temperatures for Determining Precipitation Type, ER Technical Attachment 93, Number 10A, 8 pp.

Manuel, P., and M. Delisi, 1993: Multiscale Evaluation of the 2 June 1990 Tornado Outbreak. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, 215-219.

Markowski, P. M., E.N. Rasmussen, and J.M. Straka, 1998: The Occurrence of Tornadoes in Supercells Interacting with Boundaries during VORTEX 95. Wea. and Forecasting, 13, 852-859.

_________, J.M. Straka, E.N. Rasmussen, and D.O. Blanchard 1998: Variability of Storm-Relative Helicity during VORTEX. Monthly Weather Review, 126, 2959-2971.

McCann, D.W., 1994: WINDEX - New Index for Forecasting Microburst Potential. Wea. and Forecasting, 4, 532-541.

____________, 1983: Synoptic Patterns Assocaited with Splitting Thunderstorms. Preprints, 13th Conf. Severe Local Storms, Tulsa, OK, J1 - J4.

____________, 1981: The Enhanced-V, A Satellite Observable Severe Storm Signature. NOAA Tech Memo, NWS, NSSFC-4, Kansas City, MO, 31 pp.

McCaul, E.W. Jr., 1991: Buoyancy and Shear Characteristics of Hurricane-Tornado Environments. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 1954-1978.

McDonald, A., 1976: Gusty Surface Winds and High Level Thunderstorms. WR Technical Attachment 76-14, NWS, WR Headquarters, SSD, Salt Lake City, UT, 10 pp.

McNulty, R.P., 1988: A Case of Evaporative Cooling, CR Technical Attachment 88-20, 5 pp.

___________, 1988: Winter Precipitation Type, CR Technical Attachment 88-4, 9 pp.

Mead, C. M., 1995: The Relationship Between Convective Available Potential Energy, Storm Relative Helicity, and the Development of Tornadic Thunderstorms in the Northern Plains, SR Technical Attachment 95-43, 7 pp.

Medlin, J.M., 1993: A Meteorological Analysis of an "Instability Burst" that Produced Short-Term Heavy Convective Snow in the Lower Ohio River Valley. Postprints, 3rd Nat. Heavy Precipitation Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA, 365-384.

Millard, J.P., and F.H. Carr, 1982: Compostite Study of Comma Clouds and Their Association with Severe Weather Over the Great Plains. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Seatle, WA, 402-406.

Miller, R.C., 1972: Notes on Analysis and Severe Storm Forecasting Procedures of the Air Force Global Weather Center. AWS Tech. Report 200 (Rev.), Headquarters, Air Weather Service, Scott AFB, IL, 106 pp.

Moller, A.R., C.A. Doswell III, M.P. Foster, and G.R. Woodall, 1994: The Operational Recognition of Supercell Thunderstorm Environments and Storm Structure. Wea. and Forecasting, 9, 327-347.

__________, and R.W. Przybylinski, 1990: High-Precipitation Supercells: A Conceptual Model and Documentation. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kananaskis Park, Alberta, Canada, 52-57.

Moore, J.T., S.M. Nolan, F.H. Glass, D.L. Ferry, and S.M. Rochette, 1995: Flash-Flood-Producing High-Precipitation Supercells in Missouri. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Dallas, TX, J(4)79 - J(4)12.

_________, and T.E. Lambert, 1993: The Use of Equivalent Potential Vorticity to Diagnose Regions of Conditional Symmetric Instability. Wea. and Forecasting, 8, 512-517.

_________, and J.P. Pino, 1990: An Interactive Method for Estimating Maximum Hailstone Size fom Forecast Soundings. Wea. and Forecasting, 5, 508-526.

Morrison, A.L., 1989: A Method to Determine the Width of a Snow Band Associated with Winter Storms by Using Infrared Satellite Data. Postprints, 2nd Nat. Winter Weather Workshop, Raleigh, NC, 65-73.

Murphy, R.A., K.J. Pence, J.A. Westland, and R.E. Kilduff, 1994: A Comparison Study of VIL vs Rotational Velocity Associated with Tornadic Thunderstorms. Postprints, 1st WSR-88D Users Conf., Norman, OK, 259-265.

Murphy T.W., and V.S. Woods, 1992: A Damaging Tornado from Low Topped Convection. Preprints, Symposium on Weather Forecasting, Atlanta, GA, 195-201.

Myers, C., 1996: An Overview of the Rapid Update Cycle. Iowa Technical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 8, 43-48.

Naglic, S.J., 1990: A Winter-Time Maddox Frontal Type Flood Event, ER Technical Attachment 90 Number 9B, 11 pp.

Naistat, R.J., 1988: Forecasting Fog the Old Fashioned Way, CR Technical Attachment, 88-25, 13 pp.

Nastrom, G.D., 1990: Creating Instant Experience...or, How to Make a Forecast Study, CR Technical Attachment 90-37, 7 pp.

Niziol, T.A., W.R. Synder and J.S. Waldstreicher, 1995: Winter Weather Forecasting Throughout the Eastern United States. Part IV: Lake Effect Snow, Wea. and Forecasting, Vol. 10, 61-77.

_________, and J.M. Levan, 1992: Forecast Procedures for Mesoscale Lake Induced Snow Events in the Eastern U.S. Preprints, Symposium on Wea. Forecasting, Atlanta, GA, 202-209.

_________, 1987: Operational Forecasting of Lake Effect Snow in Western and Central New York. Wea. and Forecasting, Vol. 1, 311-321.

Optiz, H.H., S.G. Summer, D.A. Wert, W.R. Synder, R.J. Kane, R.H. Brady, P.M. Stokols, S.C. Kuhl, and G.M. Carter, 1995: The Challenge of Forecasting Heavy Rain and Flooding Throughout the Eastern Region of the National Weather Service. Part II: Forecast Techniques and Applications. Wea. and Forecasting, Vol. 10, 91-104.

Oravec, R.T. 1995: Common Cold Season Biases in NMC'S Medium Range Forecast Model (MRF). Postprints, 4th NWS Winter Weather Workshop, Kansas City, MO, 4-1 - 4-21.

Outlaw, D., 1994: Application of the "Magic Chart" During the "Storm of the Century", March 11-14, 1993, SR Technical Attachment 94-41, 7 pp.

Perez, A.H., R.E. Orville, and L.J. Wicker, 1995: Characteristics of Cloud to Ground Lightning Associated with Violent-Tornado Producing Supercells. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Dallas, TX, 409-413.

Pfost, R., and A.E. Gerard, 1997: "Bookend Vortex" Induced Tornadoes Along the Natchez Trace. Wea. and Forecasting, 12, 572-580.

_______, K.J. Pence, and J.W. Conway, 1997: Rear Flank Downdraft Induced Tornadoes in Mississippi and Alabama. Preprints, 28th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Austin, TX, 459-460.

_______, B. Reagan, and D. Carman, 1995: The Mississippi Tornado Outbreak of November 27, 1994, SR Technical Attachment 95-24, 11 pp.

Phillips, G., 1995: Example of Manual PRF Selection to Unmask Range Folded Velocities, CRH 95-17, 5 pp.

________, 1994: Observation of a Left-Moving Severe Thunderstorm, CR WSR-88D Operational Notes 94-06, 5 pp.

________, and D.V. Baker, 1993: An Application of Wind Profiler Data in the Forecast Decision-Making Process, SR Technical Attachment 93-30, 4 pp.

Polston, K.L., 1996: Synoptic Patterns and Environmental Conditions Associated with Very Large (4" and Greater) Hail Events. Preprints, 18th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, San Francisco, CA, 349-356.

Prater, E.T., and A.A. Borho, 1992: Doppler Radar Wind and Reflectivity Signatures with Overrunning and Freezing Rain Episodes: Preliminary Results. Journal of Applied Meteor., 31, 1350-1358.

Przybylinski, R.W., 1995: The Bow Echo: Observations, Numerical Simulations, and Severe Weather Detection Methods. Wea. and Forecasting, 10, 203-218.

______________, and G.K. Schmocker, 1993: The Evolution of a Widespread Convective Wind Storm Over Central and Eastern Missouri. Preprints, 13th Conf. on Wea. Analysis and Forecasting, Vienna,VA, 461-465.

______________, T.J. Shea, D.L. Ferry, E.H. Goetsch, R.R. Czys, and N.E. Wescott, 1993: Doppler Radar Observations of High Precipitation Supercells Over the Mid-Mississippi Valley Region. Preprints, 17th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, St. Louis, MO, 158-163.

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